Risks of Global Economy

The problem of the globalization of risks is examined in this article. The author considers one of the global risks is migratory risks. In the article the author analyses the migratory risks and their influence on global economy.

International judiciaries as subjects of supranational specialized control activities

Introduction. In the context of the rapidly changing geopolitical situation in the world, the issue of increasing efficiency of interstate interaction within the framework of the functioning of international universal and regional organizations seems to be very relevant. Theoretical analysis. The authors prove the legitimacy of highlighting the control function as one of the main functions in the activities of international judicial subjects, the purpose of which is to protect natural law, law and preserve the principles and norms of international legal relations, including when considering disputes about the compliance of the domestic legislation of the participating countries with international agreements, which they have undertaken to comply with. Empirical analysis. The study provides a critical analysis of international jurisprudence, primarily containing the construction of the “European consensus”, which is a powerful lever of judicial activism and implies the exclusion of the possibility of applying the doctrine of freedom of appreciation of states that are parties to international agreements. Results. Consideration of international judicial subjects through the prism of the proposed scientific approach led to the conclusion about their leading role in the mechanism of protection of international treaties as an independent subject of specialized control activities, as well as their significant impact on the processes of state sovereignization and international globalization.

The Problems of Integration of the Internet Economy of Russia in the System of World Economy

Introduction. The article is aimed at the revealing of positive and negative sides of the integration of Internet-economy of Russia into the world economy system. The tasks of the article are: consideration of risks of economic globalization which acquires a new quality due to the introduction of Internet technologies, and studying the phenomenon of informational inequality of individual countries and regions. Theoretical analysis. The factors of the positive impact of Internet technologies on the world economy globalization are: permanent reduction in value of information transfer; increase of efficiency of production processes; labour productivity increase; ensuring of better living standards of the population. A significant danger in the path of the world economy globalization based on Internet technologies introduction is an information inequality of individual countries and regions, which promotes the growth of the economic asymmetry between them. Results. Russia is still significantly behind Western countries in the sphere of information technologies development. Russia as raw material producing country with the corresponding economic structure is forced to stay on the path so-called «catching up development». In the phase of the structural crisis it is necessary to finance the new technological structures priority development from the funds of natural rent. Russian economy needs a decisive turn from raw materials producing to innovative economy. Information society establishment requires the significant increase of the role of government regulation. In modern conditions the strategy of accelerated development of the Internet economy, the formation of an appropriate infrastructure and adequate institutions becomes its most important task.

Strategies of Real Estate Investments in the Domestic and Foreign Markets

The current stage of globalization demonstrates a completely failure of local business and authorities to reflect the expansion of transnational investment and construction capital which is rapidly increasing its influence on the development of the national real estate markets. The problem lies in the inability to explain adequately and predict accurately the nature of the impact of this factor without proper understanding of the differences in the strategies of domestic and foreign investment in real estate. Methodology. The solution of the problem require rejection of the liberal economic concepts and usage the provisions of the classical political economy, which operates with a separate descriptions of the real estate as goods and as capital. The temporal and structural analysis of investments takes the central place in the study. Analysis. Analysis is based on empirical data, including facts on investment activity in the real estate of Russia, India, USA, China and the World in general. We show inability of the division investments through the basis of legal subjectivity «resident–non-resident». Domestic and foreign strategies vary according to all indicators of business: types of collateral, frequency of investments, their turnover, degree of dominance in the national real estate market in different periods of its development cycle. Results. As a result, we have for the first time identified and explained the variability of rhythmic strategies of foreign players associated with the dynamics of the financial and economic condition of the domestic real estate market. It was revealed that domestic businesses needs in state support that must limit the freedom of the repatriation of foreign investments.

The Genesis and Development of the Precariat in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan: Comparative Analysis

Introduction. Contemporary processes of formation of the information society, emerging of new technological structures and digital revolution radically change the character and institutional structure of labor relations that occurred in industrial age. New unusual forms of employment appear. They are still poorly included in the field of institutional regulation. These processes are especially acute in the former Soviet republics. The transition to market relations in these new countries led to the development of precarization processes. Theoretical analysis. In this article the analysis of the theoretical approaches to the definition of the concepts “precariat”, “precarization” carried out by Russian and foreign economists and sociologists is considered; the causes, criteria and structural elements of this phenomenon are determined. In the process of research there were studied scientific publications, Internet site materials and statistical organizations’ data of the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan, which characterize the processes of social precarization in both states. A sociological survey involving 420 respondents in both countries was conducted. Empirical analysis. The analysis of the scientific literature, statistical data and the results of the conducted sociological research show the existence of precarization processes both in the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan, however, there are certain differences. Results of study. A comparative analysis of the processes of social precarization in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan has revealed the objective causes and forms of its manifestation in these states, conditioned by the culturological features of the two countries. It is revealed that the intensity of precarization is somewhat lower in the RK than in the Russian Federation. The share of workers whose working conditions do not correspond to sanitary and hygienic standards is lower, informal employment tends to decrease. The survey of workers in the RK did not reveal facts of informal wages (“in envelopes”).

Development of Innovative Business and its Clustering in the Conditions of Globalization

Introduction. Modern economy in the context of growing globalization needs in forming effective innovative mechanisms and functional models of innovation development. Theoretical analysis. Globalization as a process covering all areas of social development has a strong influence on innovation policy, until its strategic aims, directions and mechanisms of implementation. One of the challenges of globalization becomes an innovative development of States. Appear firm fully focused on innovation, in particular the role of flagship of the innovative development of TNC and major national business structures. With regard to aspects of regional innovation development, the most important trend here is the clustering of production systems. The purpose of the article is to identify the main trends of innovation development in the context of increasing globalization, and on the other hand to analyse the peculiarities of regional specifics innovatizacii. Results. It is revealed, that in modern conditions of globalization processes more complex. It has been established that innovative economy increasingly penetrates into national economic systems and distributed to a growing number of countries, both developed and developing. Researched critical factors of the innovation economy. Proved the need for convergence between business and Government to better utilize all the benefits of globalization and innovatizacii of the economy. The role of TNCs and other business structures as the “locomotive” of innovation and economic development. Lists the main trends in the development of models of innovation policy. Give special attention to the clustering processes, which play an important role in promoting regional economic integration.

Development of Russia in the Conditions of Global Economic Instability

Introduction. The current stage of globalization is characterized by increased economic instability, which requires a search the mechanism that allows to minimize the emerging economic risks and to obtain some advantages in the changed circumstances. The author makes the hypothesis that in our country we should go towards the creation of economic and technological leading state. Theoretical analysis. The analysis of structural shifts in the global economy demonstrates the need for changes in the design of global and national regulation, because it isn’t acceptable to the vast majority of countries and their associations. The emergence of new contradictions and crisis phenomena at the national and global level makes necessary the determination of directions for transition the domestic economy to sustainable economic growth. The formation of effective economic system will allow Russia to become the world center of economic influence. Empirical analysis. The analysis and diagnosis of the economic growth in the Russian Federation indicate the entrance of the domestic economy in the zone of protracted recession. This involves the working out managerial decisions aimed at overcoming recession and moving to the phase of economic growth on the basis of mo dernization of state management system in the conditions of new global challenges. Results. The system character of solutions existing problems on the basis of transformation of the fundamentals of the economic system to improve its dynamism and adaptability is justified.

Socio-economic Factors of Formation of National Identity in the Conditions of Globalization

Introduction. The urgency of the problems of international cooperation associated with the exacerbation of national consciousness, increased tolerance to violations of national equality and distorted media coverage of conflict on a national basis. Theoretical analysis. The purpose of the article – to identify systemically important factors of national identity. The formation of national identity is determined by the spatial characteristics – border areas. Another factor that is closely related to the previous one, is a land. A feature of the above two factors is that they are not affected by the processes of globalization. The formation of national identity is important not only to the role of government, but also state-forming nation. Results. The analysis found that the largest transformational changes are subject to language, culture and economy that make up the framework of the national identity of any state. Therefore, at the highest level should be given to a system of measures and activities to institutionalize the influence of globalization processes and the development of protective mechanisms for the preservation of the most vulnerable places in the formation of national identity.

External Environment as a Source of Threat for Ecological and Economic Industrial Enterprises Safety

Introduction. The effective use of industrial capacity is the important condition for the national economy sustainable development. Manufacturing organizations can provide their own ecological and economic security only when they take into account the impact of environment objective factors on their activities. The article purpose is an investigation of the exo-environment effect on the formation of the threats for industrial enterprise ecological and economic security on the example of publishing and printing companies.

Theoretical analysis. The article considers the definitions and concepts of economic security. It highlights the importance of the environmental component of economic security as it currently dominates. In addition, the author analyzes the features of exo-surroundings industrial enterprise and the relationships there in order to identify the main sources of objective threats. The study was conducted on the example of the impact of the global environment and the state to publishing and printing companies.

Results. From the point of view of increasing of enterprises environmental and economic sustainability it is found that the factors associated with exposure to the external environment are the most significant. Seeing the scale of potential threats from them is large. There are serious difficulties to forecast their occurrence and possible manifestations. As a result, the author concluded about the importance of tool such as a permanent analysis of the environmental and economic security of the organization. This tool provides the basis for strategic management decisions making. Article formulates the basic tasks of business at the decision of environmental and economic security.

Globalization as Factor of Development of the National and State Economic’s Interest of Russia

Introduction. Consideration of a problem of globalization in Russia began with collapse of the USSR when at first national economy began to join in world economic economy. From this point all advantages and shortcomings of globalization are reflected, positively or negatively, on economic development of Russia. Theoretical analysis. In a broad sense, globalization is a process of association of the countries and the people in political, economic, cultural and other spheres in the uniform world community. In this broad sense process of globalization corresponds to process of the internationalization meaning development and deepening of economic communications between the countries. Results. To estimate scales and level of globalization it is possible by means of separate indicators: to the loudspeaker of direct foreign in- vestments; growth rates of investment streams in comparison with growth rates of GDP; transfer of technological innovations. Based on three specified globalization indicators Russia shows rather good dynamics according to world level. The major factors of globalization as source of development of the national and state economic interests of Russia: increase in volumes of international trade; liberalization of the markets of the capital; growth of volumes of the direct foreign investments exceeding growth of volumes of foreign trade; distribution of technological innovations. Conclusion. The above-mentioned factors accelerating globalization such as changes and development of high technologies, the amplifying internationalization, liberalization of international trade, and the growing volume of the international investments, have direct impact on development of national state interests of the country.