labor market

Influence of the Vocational Guidance System on the Efficiency of the Labor Resources Use and Labor Productivity

Introduction. Given the high dynamics and stochasticity of demand and its magnitude in modern markets for goods and services, the issue of career guidance at all stages of an employee’s life cycle becomes highly relevant. An efficiently formed and functioning system of vocational guidance will allow you to avoid excessive expenditure of resources by the employee himself, the organization and the national economy as a whole, providing opportunities for increasing productivity. Theoretical analysis. Assessment of labor depends on such characteristics of a person who possesses it, as his intellectual and physical abilities. However, the assessment of the labor market has three aspects that depend on its subjects: employers, workers and governmental bodies. Each of the subjects has their own interests in the labor market and tools for their implementation. However, the analysis shows that the need to develop an effective system of vocational guidance is equally relevant for all subjects. The basis of the formation of this system, as well as the preparation of future specialists, should be based on close interaction between educational institutions and future employers, as well as analysis and forecasting of external trends regarding the labor market environment. Empirical analysis. The Russian labor market is characterized by high dynamics of job creation and liquidation in various industries, and the ratio between the number of jobs created and liquidated in different industries varies. This allows us to make a conclusion about the relevance of the redistribution of part of the released workers to other sectors, which actualizes the issues of vocational orientation and retraining of labor resources. Also for the Russian labor market the following trends can be identified: imbalance of supply and demand; the growing popularity of working professions; the need to continue working with staff available; the increase of employees working at home; the inevitability of increasing the age of employees of enterprises and organizations. Results. The way out of this situation is seen in building a system of preparing young people for the informed choice of a profession based on the formation of a new model of vocational guidance for young people and the development of an integrated strategy for developing the country’s economy’s personnel for several years (at least 5–7 years).

Modeling the Dynamics of the Share of the Working-age Population in the Saratov Region

Introduction. The population change is an actual direction of research not only for economists, but also for sociologists, political scientists, and psychologists. The author presents the author’s results of modeling the population of the Saratov region of working age. Theoretical analysis. For the economy of the Saratov region, it is necessary to analyze the use of labor resources in order to carry out literate policies. The population of the region shows a negative dynamics, which in general affects not only the number of labor resources, but also the regional macroeconomic indicators and the labor market. Empirical analysis. The policy of economic development of the Saratov region and Russia as a whole is aimed at changing the boundaries of the able-bodied population, in this connection, the article models variants with changing upper and lower boundaries of working age. The use of the results of this study shows how much such changes are needed, and to what extent, they are possible at the present time. Results. Calculations of the model showed that in the Saratov region a complex demographic situation that requires the development and implementation of appropriate measures aimed at preserving the working-age population. Change in the upper limits of working age adversely affects the economic development of the region.

The Current State and Problems of the Labor Market in the EAEC Countries

Introduction. The labor market is a fundamental factor in the economy of any country, and the functioning of the national economy depends on its dynamics and condition. A review article on the labor market of the EAEU countries. Empirical analysis. The article analyzes the state of the labor market and labor market problems, among which the authors especially highlight: market imbalance; Presence of restrictions, including legal ones, reduction of real mobility opportunities for the able-bodied population; Monopolized economy in some countries of the world, at its expense. An important place in the article is given to the review of the labor market of the EAEU countries and identification of the main problems, among which: the widening gap between supply and demand, skilled labor, the aggravation of the employment problems of certain socio-demographic groups of the population, the increase in the flow of labor migration from the EAEU member states to the Russian Federation, Lack of a common information base on employment issues of the EAEU member countries. Results. The article provides recommendations on overcoming labor market problems (the development of labor exchange between the member countries on a mutually beneficial basis, the regulation and activation of interaction between educational institutions and the state, companies, the expansion of the authority of the labor resources department of the Department of Labor Migration and Social Protection of the EEC ( Eurasian Economic Commission), creation of an information base on employment issues and vacancies in the EAEU countries).