international trade

Modern Trends of Protectionism in Regulation of International Trade

The use of protective tools is one of the most important and controversial trends in foreign policy, especially in the formulation of economic policies in developing countries and countries with economies in transition in contemporary geo-economic transformations. Theoretical analysis. Based on the analysis of the theory and practice of protectionist regulation aimed at supporting the normal functioning of the national market mechanism under the presence in the global market economies with different efficiency and opportunistic features are highlighted and the reasons for the positive and negative consequences of the use of protectionism. The study of modern mechanism of protection in the context of the functioning of the WTO and the development of the global market led to the conclusion of the irreversibility of reducing import tariffs, which, however, does not preclude the temporary introduction of customs tariffs in developed countries in a quite high rates of import duties, which are widely used in the context of anti-dumping and countervailing investigations. In addition, the financial crisis, climate change and the requirements for food safety have led to the increased use of non-tariff instruments in the practice of protectionist regulations, which include technical barriers to trade, application of sanitary and phytosanitary standards. Conclusions. The study concluded that the need for protectionist instruments by developing countries including the country’s post-Soviet space, to achieve economic and social goals. In Ukraine, the protectionist tools are used primarily to achieve the traditional goals of protecting domestic producers and tariff regulation is carried out in accordance with WTO agreements, which gradually draws restrictions and support to certain limits: quantitative, time-bound and objectives. It thus minimizes the negative effects of protectionism in the development of national economies, global trade and consumer welfare of the global economy.

The Evolution of Classical and Neoclassical Theories of Territorial Labor Division and International Trade

Introduction. This article investigates stages of development of classical and neoclassical concepts of spatial economics. Theoretical analysis. The evolution of classical and neoclassical theories of the international division of labor and world trade reflected the objective historical conditions and tendencies: the global hegemony of Great Britain in the 19th century, the consequences of the Great Depression of 1929–1933, the global hegemony of the United States after World War II. The ignoring of dynamic changes of economy in classical and neoclassical theories of intercountry labor division is the investigations of their initial theoretical and methodological premises: models of the perfect competition, decreasing or constant return from scale, domination of formal and mathematical logic, lack of mobility of factors of production. Results. Smith, Ricardo, Heckscher – Olin, and Samuelson’s theories were serious and worthy attempts of a research of distribution of different types of economic activity in space. These theories are valuable products of evolution of an economic thought for studying in the context of history of development of the world economy.

New Interpretation of the Classical Interregional and International Trade Theories: Economic Logic vs the Economy

Introduction. This paper offers a new interpretation of the principles of absolute and comparative advantage. Theoretical analysis. The innovation of this study is its attempt to consider the old theories of international trade as the first models of the spatial economy. During the course of the theoretical research, analysis was performed not only on the semantic content of the referenced hypotheses, but also on the historico-economic and cultural backgrounds of their origins that incorporate in themselves a system of scientific views and values: ideas of natural balanced economic development to which A. Smith and D. Ricardo adhered. Results. As a result, the study has discovered several internal and external contradictions, which limit the explanatory power of the theories of A. Smith and D. Ricardo. The researchers have also determined the factors which allow these models to remain as the mainstream in economic theory and practice for a long time.

Identification of Actual Threats for Export Control System: International and Russian Experience

Introduction. The article focuses on the reasons of the emergence of new threats and «break points» in the export control system both at regional and global levels. There is the characteristic of the given system in Russia, including the activities of the special authorities, as well as the summary description of the activities of the international export control regimes. Theoretical analysis. The author gives the positions, which were formed at the international meetings of the export control regimes, as well as at formal and informal meetings with business representatives. It is concluded the need for a more frequent interaction between export oriented public and private organizations in order to exchange the information in world economics’ sphere, including circulating the best practices in this sphere. Results. It is analyzed and classified two groups of problems in the field of export control: brokering and transit operations, intangible transfers. We study the international and Russian experience in world economics in overcoming challenges and threats to the export control system, we also make the examples. All of this brings to the conclusions of the need to develop unified procedures in the control of brokering and transit operations, control of cyberspace through a mechanism for obtaining a license.