The Specifics of the Transaction Costs in Line with the Formation of the Innovation Economy

Introduction. In the heart of the analysis of this article are problems of innovation economy that most clearly characterizes the existence of transaction costs. Over time, the structure of the transaction costs has evolved: in the information economy occupy a significant proportion of the costs of searching for information and costs of measurement in the knowledge economy is gradually gaining weight the costs of negotiating and concluding contracts. With the last quarter of the twentieth century, a particularly important place in the system of transaction costs took the cost of specification and the protection of property rights, as well as the cost of training and retraining of personnel, satisfying the needs of innovation. Theoretical analysis. Of the total transaction cost economic agents depends on their competitiveness in domestic and international markets, because lower costs enable innovative enterprises to carry out their activities efficiently, constantly modifying the escaping product. This gives the opportunity to occupy a privileged position compared with other companies who are forced to spend a large part of their profits not on improving technologies and to cover transaction costs. Therefore, it is important to not only the theoretical substantiation of the need to address the issue of transaction costs, but also offer practical ways to track the dynamics of this kind costs to reduce them. Results. Reviewed by transaction costs accompanying the interaction of economic actors in the transition of the Russian economy on an innovative path, as well as factors which complicates the measurement of transaction costs. Identified obstacles to the emergence of an innovative economy in our country. Proposed a series of measures to effectively reduce the transaction costs.

Principles of Project Investment Method of Innovation Activity

Introduction. At present, the development of a modern economy of the country is impossible without investing in innovation. The role of innovation in the economy increases every day, and one investment project method and the basic methods of investment, which will help Russia to overcome all the new frontiers of economic development. Theoretical analysis. The article deals with the analysis and design method of investing innovation and detail all the principles of the method. Result. Based on the different perspectives of the authors about the project method and its investment principles identified strengths and weaknesses of this method. According to the results of the research project method investment innovation were identified strengths of this method and can say with full confidence that the use of the design method of investing in the Russian Federation will promote the growth of innovative activity in the country and boosting the economy of the country as a whole.

International Science and Technology Cooperation of the Republic of Korea

Introduction. Further successful development of the Russian regions should be based on the strategy of modernization. Identification of the main problems of economic development of regions, especially investment, should be an important stage in the construction of this strategy. The methodology and results of the study is analysis of the extent and dynamics of indicators of investment activity in the regions, as well as the assessment of the level and quality of the use of the most important elements of their reproductive capacity required in determining the degree of implementation of the strategy of modernization. Theoretical analysis. The process for determining the effectiveness of investment activity at the regional level offered, and the rating of regions of the Russian Federation on key indicators of return on investment is made. Discussion of the results. The study found that some regions, occupying relatively high positions in the main macroeconomic indicators of gross product, have a number of problems in its investment development. Obstacle to the modernization of the economy of the Russian regions is their under- investment. As a guide the long-term development must be put as a goal to achieve and exceed the national average values. Also some measures the effective implementation of the reproductive potential of the regions offered.

The Role of Public Authorities in the Organization of Innovative Activity in the Saratov Region

Introduction. The tactical objective of the authorities in the field of innovation is the formation of a favorable environment, as «umbrella» over innovation. Theoretical analysis. The article analyzes the activities of executive authorities in the Saratov region, responsible for taking initiatives in innovation, and algorithmic activities of the government of the Saratov region on the creation of favourable innovation climate and innovation infrastructure. Empirical analysis. The mechanisms of influence of the Ministry of industry and energy of the Saratov region, the Ministry of economic development and investment policy, regional Venture Fund and Business incubator for innovative activity in the region analyzed. Discussion of the results. There is support of key state agencies aimed at stimulating innovation activity, commercialization of new inventions, their introduction into production in the Saratov region. Powerful university complex with regional bodies has a direct impact on the development of innovative activities in the region. However, weak industry, the lack of competitive enterprises in a modern technological basis, the bankruptcy of many industrial enterprises, the burden of excessive taxes, high tariffs, lack of investment programs reinforce is negative trends. It requires the review of all innovation, investment and industrial policy in the Saratov region, its adjustment towards the creation of favorable conditions for development of innovative activity.

The Analysis of Economic Activity of Small Innovative Enterprises Founded by Budget Scientific and Educational Institutions of Higher Education

Introduction. This article discusses one of the priorities of the economic policy of the Russian Federation, namely promoting innovation activity of companies founded on the basis of cost of scientific and educational institutions of higher education. The ability to build such companies has been allowed by the Federal Law of August 15, 2009 № 217 and Decree of the Russian Federation № 219 of April 9, 2010 (hereinafter, the Program 219). The classification of these companies and the analysis of their activity are considered in the paper. The purpose of this article is to study the major indicators of economic activity of the companies. The main task of research is analysis of the companies following Government Decree № 219. Methodology of the study. The data presented in the article have been obtained via analysis of reports of higher education institutions presented to the Scientific Research Institute – Federal Research Centre for Projects Evaluation and Consulting Services (SRI FRCEC) or the Institute, which serves as the specialized organization of the Programme 219. Results. The main result of the paper is the analysis of current state of the companies and key indicators of their activity. The article gives an analysis of features in development of small innovative companies-participants of the Program 219, the appeared disadvantages and advantages are identified.