Influence of the Vocational Guidance System on the Efficiency of the Labor Resources Use and Labor Productivity

Introduction. Given the high dynamics and stochasticity of demand and its magnitude in modern markets for goods and services, the issue of career guidance at all stages of an employee’s life cycle becomes highly relevant. An efficiently formed and functioning system of vocational guidance will allow you to avoid excessive expenditure of resources by the employee himself, the organization and the national economy as a whole, providing opportunities for increasing productivity. Theoretical analysis. Assessment of labor depends on such characteristics of a person who possesses it, as his intellectual and physical abilities. However, the assessment of the labor market has three aspects that depend on its subjects: employers, workers and governmental bodies. Each of the subjects has their own interests in the labor market and tools for their implementation. However, the analysis shows that the need to develop an effective system of vocational guidance is equally relevant for all subjects. The basis of the formation of this system, as well as the preparation of future specialists, should be based on close interaction between educational institutions and future employers, as well as analysis and forecasting of external trends regarding the labor market environment. Empirical analysis. The Russian labor market is characterized by high dynamics of job creation and liquidation in various industries, and the ratio between the number of jobs created and liquidated in different industries varies. This allows us to make a conclusion about the relevance of the redistribution of part of the released workers to other sectors, which actualizes the issues of vocational orientation and retraining of labor resources. Also for the Russian labor market the following trends can be identified: imbalance of supply and demand; the growing popularity of working professions; the need to continue working with staff available; the increase of employees working at home; the inevitability of increasing the age of employees of enterprises and organizations. Results. The way out of this situation is seen in building a system of preparing young people for the informed choice of a profession based on the formation of a new model of vocational guidance for young people and the development of an integrated strategy for developing the country’s economy’s personnel for several years (at least 5–7 years).

Mathematical Justification of Economic in the Conditions of Falling of the Country in the «Underdevelopment Trap»

Introduction. Solving problems of technological development of Russia is an important task of formation of an innovative economy. In recent years there has been an intensification of mining operations and sales abroad, which can lead to rapid depletion of resources and the deterioration of the country in the future, but with competent macroeconomic policies, availability of raw materials and export of raw materials can be a major competitive advantage for the country. Theoretical analysis. The article analyzes the innovation of economic growth in terms of increase in production of natural resources, held in the framework of the Solow model, as well as evaluation and justification of the factors that negatively affect the economy. In the developed economic and mathematical model of growth based on the modification of the Solow model with constant saving rate. Discussion of results. In the simulations of the dynamics of technological development and analysis of the effect of the economy falling into the trap of underdevelopment in the lagging economy from the world’s technological leaders. It is proved that exogenous high prices for the resource at low technological level, capacity development and the level of education can lead to greater economic dependence on raw materials factor. With the help of mathematical modeling proved that at consistently high prices, the country will lose its potential for development and the economy will dominate the raw material component, further in the case of a fall in prices for the resource, the majority of investments in the economy again goes into the manufacturing sector, which, however, will have the potential for development insufficient to eliminate the backlog of the economy, may reduce the level of education in the case of inconsistency, which makes the output of the economy at world level impossible.

The «Triple Helix» in the Innovation System Saratov Region – Interaction and Disadvantages of Functioning

Introduction. The article deals with the content of theories of «Triple Helix», developed by Western scholars at the beginning of the XXI century, the essence of which is the need for innovative interaction of three driving forces of the modern economy – the university community, industry and the public authorities, and analyzes the practical aspects of this interaction in the Saratov region, shows the advantages and disadvantages of the relationship between data elements. Theoretical analysis. Consideration of the interaction between the elements of the «Triple Helix» involves the use of methods of scientific research. These methods include systemic, complex, statistical methods, analysis and synthesis of the object, the use of special methods of research (interview data). Empirical analysis. In an innovative collaboration at the regional level, considering the possibility of capitalization available cash of material and financial resources of the region and it is shown that in the Saratov region to implement such a capitalization problematic due to the high credit debt in the region. Results. In conclusion, it is concluded that much of the functioning of the «Triple Helix» depends on the activities of the regional public authorities, which must implement appropriate economic policies to increase the capitalization of the available material and educational resources in the Saratov region, to prevent the «brain drain» from the region, to create favorable conditions for the implementation of innovations most gifted students, the scientific community and innovative businesses