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Essence of Freedom of Mass Information in the Constitutional Law of Russia and Germany

Privalov Sergej A., Saratov State Law Academy

Introduction. Freedom of the media is one of the indicators of the level of development of democracy in a particular state, including the Russian Federation. In order to achieve a real democratic regime in modern Russia, the need for creation of an effective framework for the implementation of constitutional freedom of the media arises. However, despite the high importance of the unhindered circulation of information in society, the concept of media freedom is currently poorly developed in Russian legal science, in contrast to German legal thought. Theoretical analysis. The definition of the essence of freedom of the media today is comprehensive. Freedom in question is at the crossroads of constitutional law, philosophy, political science and sociology. A significant problem is the definition of the nature of freedom of the media as a special case of constitutional freedom. Nevertheless, the establishment of the concept of this freedom seems necessary in order to ensure the normal development of democratic institutions in society and the degree of possible influence of public and private institutions on them. Empirical analysis. The most significant problems in determining the essence of freedom of the media in Russia and Germany are the determination of its relationship with other constitutional freedoms, which are stipulated in the legislation of the countries in question. The most important thing is to determine the relationship between constitutional freedom of the media with freedom of the press and freedom of information in the constitutional legislation of the Russian Federation and the Federal Republic of Germany. Results. On the basis of Russian and German legislation, as well as the views of prominent scientists, it is proposed that the mass media should be understood as individual’s ability, unconditioned by anyone and anything, to be a subject of mass processes of information circulation. In addition, it substantiates the need to separate the concepts of freedom of the media from its closely related freedom of the press and freedom of information.

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