traces of a shot

Firearms of Limited Damage on the Basis of the Tula Tokarev (TT) Pistol and Features of the Deposition of Shot Products on Obstructions of Non-biological Origin when Fired from Close Range

Introduction. One of the types of limited-fire barreled weapons (LLW) is the limited liability company created at the manufacturing enterprises of Russia’s limited liability company on the basis of models and models of short-barreled combat firearms (pistols and revolvers), by introducing into the design a sample of short-barreled combat firearms of the factory making changes made by legal replacement of its trunk under a regular cartridge on the trunk (imitator of the trunk) under the cartridge of a traumatic action, or adaptation trunk at regular cartridge for firing a cartridge traumatic preserving other original parts and components (shutter-casing frame of the trigger) of the arms of the sample, with the subsequent certification of the arms as a new model LLW. To models LLW, designed and produced in Russia in this way, it is possible to attribute and OOOP on the basis of a combat rifled short-barreled firearm – a pistol of the Tokarev design of the sample 1930/1933. (“TT – Tula Tokarev”) of caliber 7,62 mm (LLW on the basis of a pistol TT). In the current literature there is practically no data on the structural features of the trunks or imitators of the trunks of the LLW on the basis of the TT pistol and on the morphological features of the traces of the shot and the limiting distances in the detection of the traces of a shot from it on non-biological (tissue) barriers, as a result of which experiments were undertaken to establish the distance of detection of traces of a shot from the barrel of the LLW on the basis of the TT gun, and the study of the patterns of deposition of the shot products on the barrier, depending on t structural features of the trunk of LLW based on the TT gun and other factors (used regular traumatic cartridge). Methods of research. Experimental part. In the course of the work, certain structural features of the trunks of various models of LLW were built on the basis of the TT pistol (MP-81 pistol and the Leader-M pistol), after which the standard models of traumatic action of the corresponding caliber were fired from experimental models tissue targets from various distances from the muzzle of the trunk (or imitator of the trunk) of the weapon to the surface of the target (from 5 to 50 cm) and with the relatively tight contact of the muzzle of the barrel of the weapon with the outside The target is the target. Results of the study. The dependence of the picture of the deposition of the shot products (shot soot and unburned or half-burned particles of gunpowder) on the tissue barrier from the caliber and the design features of the barrel (imitator of the barrel) of the LLW models on the basis of the TT gun with shots from a close distance. Discussion of results. The possibility of producing differential diagnostic studies of gunshot injuries on fabric barriers formed during shots from individual models of LLW based on the TT pistol, depending on the caliber of the cartridge and the structural features of the barrel (imitator of the barrel), with the establishment of a close shot distance in the case of using or using this type weapons, allowing to distinguish them on the basis of these damages. The need to continue research work on the study of structural features of the trunks of other models of LLW based on the TT pistol (pistol “VPO-501 PS – Leader” under the cartridge of the traumatic action 10x32T, equipped with two rubber bullets, pistol TT-T under patron of the traumatic action 10x28T) and especially the formation of gunshot injuries on the fabric barriers for shots from these weapons models.

Problems of Criminalistic Evaluation of the Place of Accidents as Object of Diagnostic Forensically-Ballistic Expert Research

Introduction. When investigating crimes committed with the use of small arms and gas barreled weapons, it is often necessary to carry out expert studies of not only individual objects (weapons, cartridges, traces of their operation), but also the material situation of the scene as a whole. Theoretical analysis. The problem of forensic assessment of the scene of an accident as an object of scientific and practical cognition is examined through analysis of the existing in forensic knowledge of the essence of expert research at the scene and expert studies of the scene of the incident. It is established that the concepts “expert investigations at the scene” and “expert investigations of the scene” are used in a variety of ways. In solving scientific and practical problems, the possibility of their application is determined by the specific situation that develops in the course of the investigation of the crime, the organizational and methodological necessity of providing expert research. Based on the definition of the conformity of the category “material situation of the scene” to the essence of the methodology of cognition of such objects, the relationship between the concepts “scene of the accident” and “material situation of the scene”, it was concluded that in a number of cases the entire set of available information on the scene of the incident, including its material situation, for solving problems of situational order. Empirical analysis. The case of expert practice cited in the work illustrates the advisability of using an expanded list of forensically significant information about the scene of events to establish the event side of the crime under investigation. Results. The possibility of examining as the object of a diagnostic forensic-ballistic expert study not only the material situation of the scene, but also the site of the incident itself, the volume of criminally significant information of which can be expressed by the formula “material situation of the scene +” is proved. The expediency of distinguishing such a group of objects of expert research determines the cases of establishing the event party of the crime being investigated, when for an expert decision of the issue information is needed not only about the material situation of the scene, but also other forensically significant information.