The Legal Regime of the Animal Without the Owner (Stray Animals)

Introduction. The article deals with the theory and practice of treatment of stray animals in the context of recent changes in the Russian legislation. Theoretical analysis. Terminology issues are investigated. The author also proves that the strategy of return of sterilized animals from animal shelters to their natural environment is groundless. The author justifies measures for development of legal responsibility for violation of the legislation on the treatment of stray animals, measures for registration of stray animals, importance of change of the state policy in the field of animal by-products, measures for development of ecological culture and education. Results. Stray animals (animals without owners) occupy a special place in the classification of wild and domestic animals, having an intermediate position. At the moment, Russia has adopted a package of laws clarifying the legal status of stray animals, but there is still some confusion in terminology and declarative procedures aimed at reducing the number of stray animals. Implementation of the measures proposed in the present study will reduce the number of stray animals, which will lead to the improvement of sanitary conditions in the cities, will reduce the risk of bites and diseases they may cause, will reduce the number of offences related to cruelty to animals, the number of road accidents involving stray animals and moral stress for children who have to watch stray cats and dogs suffering every day. Reducing the number of stray animals will also save taxpayers' money, since the burden of stray animal treatment on municipal authorities will be eased.

Legal Regulation of Establishment of Administrative Responsibility by Territorial Subjects of the Russian Federation

Introduction. The administrative responsibility, which is traditionally in the center of attention of administrative and legal science in modern conditions, acts as the universal mechanism protecting law and order and the public relations in various spheres of public and state life. Discussion. Laws on administrative responsibility are an integral part of the legislation of a territorial subject of the Russian Federation and provide implementation of those rules which are established at the regional level. The problem of differentiation of powers of the Russian Federation and territorial subjects of the federation in the sphere of establishment of administrative responsibility remains debatable as there is still no consensus on the matter among scientists. Results. At its present stage of development, the regional legislation on administrative responsibility is not deprived of a number of the problems that have to be solved. One of these issues is a lack of uniformity of the legislation on administrative responsibility of territorial subjects of the Russian Federation. The prospects of development of regional laws on administrative responsibility are likely to be connected with the fact that law-enforcement practice will promote transformation of a number of their norms into standards of the Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offences at its updating.