methodology

Features of the Application of the Universal Criteria of Science in Law

Introduction. Universal scientific criteria have their own specific application in law, this is due to at least two circumstances. First, universal scientific criteria are developed in the conditions of the classical philosophical picture of the world, and the question of revision of the system of universal scientific criteria was actualized in the era of post-non-classical philosophy, since not all of them are able to “work” in irrational conditions. The second is related to the general nature of universal criteria that do not take into account initially the features of the object-subject area of legal sciences. This circumstance, coupled with the lack of disciplinary criteria of legal knowledge, “coarsens” the effectiveness of the application of universal criteria to the assessment of legal knowledge for scientific purposes. Accordingly, a combination of, a set of criteria of scientific character in relation to a particular legal phenomena can be varied. These issues require careful study in connection with the emergence of new social phenomena that require legal understanding, the introduction of definitions of their concepts in the categorical apparatus of the general theory of state and law. Purpose. The purpose is to consider the set of universal scientific criteria that are necessary and suitable for the standardization of legal knowledge. Results. Due to the fact that the system of such individual (disciplinary) settings did not work, the universal standards of knowledge developed in philosophy of science are used as the criteria of scientific character of legal science. They represent a complex system of foundations of science, consisting of theoretical and logical, and empirical parameters. However, they are often insufficient for quality assessment of legal knowledge. The article considers how to apply some of the theoretical and logical scientific criteria for the identification of the scientific foundations of different legal phenomena. In other words, it is shown under which conditions (if there are grounds) legal phenomenon can be the object of scientific analysis. Conclusions. Thus, the scientific criteria are necessary evaluation parameters of state-legal phenomena, allowing to standardize legal knowledge. Their system, features of the application depend on the object and subject of science, historical and socio-cultural conditions, as well as the prevailing (dominant) methodology.

Criteria of Scientific Character of Legal Knowledge and Practice of Their Application

Introduction. The complexity of the objects of legal influence, the enrichment of the theory due to the increment of new knowledge from non-legal spheres raise the question, firstly, about the demarcation of legal knowledge in the Humanities, secondly, about increasing the requirements for the accuracy of the object-subject area and the methodology of legal research, thirdly, about the formalization of legal phenomena in legal practice, finally, about the evaluation of the results of the research, in terms of their practical utility, social relevance. These issues cannot be solved without the application of scientific criteria of legal knowledge. The purpose is to identify a set of scientific criteria necessary and suitable for the standardization of legal knowledge. Theoretical analysis. It is necessary to form a system of disciplinary scientific criteria in law as a tool for assessing legal knowledge, which has a number of features (in particular, state-legal phenomena are complex unique systems, the analysis of which necessarily takes into account political and historical factors, worldview preferences of the researcher, the choice of research methodology, etc., and this increases the subjective moment in their assessment). This fact does not always allow uniform application of universal criteria for the standardization of legal knowledge. Conclutions. The problem of establishing the boundaries of the formalization and materialization of the state-legal phenomena is solved by applying a set of criteria of scientific character, allowing, first, to state the scientific significance of the objects of knowledge, and secondly, to withdraw the legal phenomena of abstraction (the sphere of tacit knowledge) into an object-subject area and give them a categorical status.

On the Communicative Nature Mediation: Some Methodological Aspects

In the framework of Communication has developed an interpretation of communication as symbolic of the social process. Communication in the modern sense – it is a way of establishing contacts between the subjects and the shape of their interconnection and mutual influence, and the basis for the formation of new social practices. One type is the mediation of constructive interaction based on the transactional model of communication. Discussion of results. Practical implementation of extra-judicial dispute resolution and conciliation procedures in modern Russia is based on the understanding of their inner nature and driving mechanisms. The basis of the study of the communicative nature of the mediation made theoretical and methodological position of Communication. An analysis of the various approaches to the study of the fundamental characteristics of communication allowed to formulate the author’s understanding of mediation as a deliberate, planned communication taking place with the help of significant symbols. Mediation – a certain kind of communication, allowing to carry out cooperation partners in the negotiations to create a common sense of the common communicative action and agreement. This approach contributes to the formation of modern culture settlement of disputes and the wider dissemination of alternative means of resolving legal conflicts.