Cite this article as:

Minat V. N. Federal Financing of Scientific Research and Development in the USA: Volume, Structure, Perspective Directions. Izv. Saratov Univ., Economics. Management. Law, 2020, vol. 20, iss. 3, pp. 256-265. DOI:

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0).

Federal Financing of Scientific Research and Development in the USA: Volume, Structure, Perspective Directions

Introduction. In modern conditions, the research development in the United States is closely related to the functioning of the institutional environment, the financial basis of which is largely the federal government. The historically established structure of financing fundamental and applied research and development from the US state budget reflects the needs of the country’s socioeconomic development in both sectoral and territorial aspects. Theoretical analysis. The impact of direct government funding through the system of orders (contracts) on American R&D has been strong for over 70 years. Sustainable areas of financing research and development that have been formed in time and space by the US federal government are united by the “on-site mobilization” management paradigm, which provides for the rational and efficient use of the potential of stakeholders – customers and contractors. Empirical analysis. The analysis of the characteristic changes in the institutional and territorial structures of the federal funding distribution in the main categories of research and development, in the research sectors, customers and R&D executors, and the leading states of the country, is carried out. Results. Structural relationships were identified in the “customer – executor” system, within the framework of a state research program funded by the federal government in 2010–2019, based on empirical research and, in general, confirming theoretical provisions on mutual interests in the field of specific R&D necessary for development specific sectors of the US economy and social sphere. The features of the distribution and territorial distribution of federal research and development funding in the modern United States are shown. Estimated and predictive judgments are given regarding possible structural changes in federal funding for research and development in the USA in the near future.

  1. Lanshina T. A. Innovative Sector of the USA: State Policy and Tendencies of the Last Years. Administrative Consulting, 2017, no. 6, pр. 73-87 (in Russian). DOI:
  2. Lebedeva L. F., Emelianov S. V. US: New Trends in Shaping Budget Policy. International Trade and Trade Policy, 2017, no. 3 (11), pp. 120–133 (in Russian).
  3. Sudakova N. A. American R&D Budget Policy: Trends and Forecasts. USA & Canada: economika, politika, kultura, 2019, iss. 10, pр. 54–77. DOI: (in Russian).
  4. Harrison M. Modern research and development funding at US universities. SBA. Innovation Report, 2015. Available at: (accessed 28 March 2020).
  5. Steinbock D. The Federal government as the main source of funding for scientifi c and technological innovation in the American economy. ITIF, 2014. Public Procurement and Innovation in the United States. The George Washington University, 2018. Available at: (accessed 30 March 2020).
  6. Kerr W. Allocation of fi nancial resources of the Federal government on research and development in American business. Innovation Policy and the Economy Forum, 2013. Available at: (accessed 28 March 2020).
  7. Guenther G. Federal funding for research and development in the Atlantic States. Issues for the 114th Congress, Congressional Research Service, 2015. Available at: (accessed 29 March 2020).
  8. Wilson D. The rise and spread of government spending on R & d in the leading US States. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Economic Letters, 2015. Available at: (accessed 2 April 2020).
  9. Minat V. N., Mostaev Y. N. Regional Policy of the Federal Government USA in the 50s–60s of the XX Century. Federalism, 2020, no. 1, pp. 161–174 (in Russian). DOI:
  10. Historical Trends in Federal R&D. American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2020. Available at: (accessed 4 April 2020).
  11. Congressional Budget Justification Department of State. Fiscal year 2021. February 10, 2020. Available at: (accessed 2 April 2020).
  12. National Science Foundation. National Science Board. Science and Engineering Indictors, 2020. Available at: (accessed 3 April 2020).
  13. The 2020–2021 Long-Term Budget Outlook. Congress of the United States. Congressional Budget Offi ce. June 2019. Available at: (accessed 3 April 2020).
Full Text (PDF):