Trends of the Normative Support in the Functioning of a Firm in Russia

Purpose. Regulatory support of the company is part of the institutional support and is a complex functional process consisting of both internal and external, as well as formal and informal characteristics that reflect the accepted parameters of the existence of firms in a particular stage of development of the country. This article discusses historical tendencies, theoretical and methodological issues of development and transformation of the normative support of domestic firms. Theoretical analysis. The basis of the theoretical analysis supports is the open nature of the domestic economy and law and their interdependent development. The following main stage and characteristics of the development of regulatory support firms in Russia are highlighted: early capitalist, Soviet, post-Soviet, «unbridled capitalism» and modern. Empirical analysis. There is historically conditioned priority of politics over economics in Russia. There is a relation of trends of the normative support functioning of domestic-owned firms with the dynamics of target political reference points and prevailing form of ownership. Conclusions. There is a contradiction of «double standards» of regulatory support firm: the simultaneous creation and elimination of the corruption. The modern trend will be determined more and more by upward dynamic of influence of the state, legal institutions, standards of ethics and morality for business development in regions and «de-offshorising» in Russia as a whole.

Social Package: the Nature and Place in Compensation

Introduction. Despite the increasing interest of researchers to the phenomenon of benefits package, its nature and essence, motivational potential, correlation with other categories to characterize payments and rewards received by employees, remain poorly studied. Purpose. to study the essence of the «benefits package» category and the practice of its benefits providing to employees in Ukrainian companies (by means of questioning). Results. The nature of the «benefits package» category and the employers’ reasons of giving benefits to employees were studied. The dialectics of the social and economic nature of the benefits is substantiated. The inclusion of some options into the benefits package is justified as unreasonable. The study revealed that only 63% of companies provided benefits to their employees. Many employers begin realizing the importance of such benefits to increase the loyalty and motivation of their employees. However, employees’ needs and interests may not always be considered during the development of benefits packages. Conclusion. An important direction of transformation of the personnel motivation practice at Ukrainian companies is increasing the quantity of benefits in compensation packages. It is necessary to consider the interests and needs of employees.

Specific of the Neoindustrialization and Modernization of Russian Economy

Introduction: In modern conditions, modernization of the Russian economy is of great importance. For this, it is necessary to perform categorical analysis of the concepts of “modernization” and “neo-industrialization” and to show their relationship. This determines the relevance of this research. Results: Modernization is characterized as a transition stage from one state of a system to another one, higher and better. It is carried out on the basis of neo-industrialization. The factors to hinder this neo-industrialization are: an inefficient structure of the economy and an unfavorable business climate. Spot and frontal modernizations are types of the modernization of the economy. Discussion: Neo-industrialization is understood as frontal modernization. It would require huge investments and should act as a basis of modernization. Elements of the technological basis get accelerated development in the neo-industrialization economy. Complex regularities of neo-industrialization as “innovative modernization” acquire dominating importance.

Risks of the Interaction among the Subjects in the Science – Business — State System in the National Economy

Introduction. The process of interaction of economic subjects of the national innovative system proceeds in the conditions of uncertainty at any level. Risks therefore exist. Risk identification and competent risk management are necessary to ensure the stability of economic subjects themselves and the whole system formed as a result of the interaction among these subjects. Theoretical analysis. On the basis of generalization of the existing theoretical researches on the problem of economic risks, the paper differentiates such concepts as risk and uncertainty, systematizes economic risks, and provides the author’s treatment of the “risk of interaction” category. Discussion. The result of the research conducted is identification of most topical and significant (for the modern economy) risks of interaction among main actors of the national innovative system (science, business, and the state). Among which, the development rate loss risk of an economic subject, the risk of economic losses as a lost profit and a half-received income, the risk of unclaimed training courses, the risk of increased budgeted expenses, low rates of the economic growth, and the risk of loss of the stability of a system.

Features of the Labor Content of the Employees of Medical Insurance Companies

Purpose. The paper holds the position that labor stimulation must change with the content of labor. At the same time, if some kind of labor cannot be effectively stimulated, its content can be modified. Results. This position is realized by analyzing characteristics of the labor of the employees of health insurance companies. At the same time, changes in the content, both having occurred and needing to be done to improve the activities of such organizations, are shown. Conclution. In particular, the authors propose to eliminate the existing order in the field of medical and economic expertise and to switch from continuous monitoring of services to financing by coefficients.

Prospects of Venture Investment Development in Russia

Introduction. At the Russian economy’s transition to innovative development, the question of its investment mechanism is very important. Venture investment is most promising in this case. For Russia, venture investment is a rather new tool and, therefore, market mechanisms are introduced with great difficulties. Tasks and methods. To observe the current situation and the causes thereof; to detect the existence of a link between innovative development and the usage of the venture investment mechanism. Theoretical methods (analysis, synthesis, modeling, logical and system approaches, deduction, and induction) and empirical methods (observation, measurement, and comparison) were used. Results: the causes of the slow introduction of venture investment into the Russian economy were recognized; an idea of strengthening the links between innovative development and market investment mechanisms was developed. In particular, a conclusion was made that using venture investment would allow implementing developer projects as well as innovative ones. Such investments would allow companies to develop much quicker. It has impact on the regional and national development, on the increase of well-being, and on the unemployment rate decrease. Conclusion. Thus, the use of venture funds would allow turning to the innovative model of development, but the state support is necessary at the early stages of venture financing. For increasing the Russian economy’s competitiveness at this stage, it is recommended to address venture investments to a limited number of critical technologies.

The Problems of Integration of the Internet Economy of Russia in the System of World Economy

Introduction. The article is aimed at the revealing of positive and negative sides of the integration of Internet-economy of Russia into the world economy system. The tasks of the article are: consideration of risks of economic globalization which acquires a new quality due to the introduction of Internet technologies, and studying the phenomenon of informational inequality of individual countries and regions. Theoretical analysis. The factors of the positive impact of Internet technologies on the world economy globalization are: permanent reduction in value of information transfer; increase of efficiency of production processes; labour productivity increase; ensuring of better living standards of the population. A significant danger in the path of the world economy globalization based on Internet technologies introduction is an information inequality of individual countries and regions, which promotes the growth of the economic asymmetry between them. Results. Russia is still significantly behind Western countries in the sphere of information technologies development. Russia as raw material producing country with the corresponding economic structure is forced to stay on the path so-called «catching up development». In the phase of the structural crisis it is necessary to finance the new technological structures priority development from the funds of natural rent. Russian economy needs a decisive turn from raw materials producing to innovative economy. Information society establishment requires the significant increase of the role of government regulation. In modern conditions the strategy of accelerated development of the Internet economy, the formation of an appropriate infrastructure and adequate institutions becomes its most important task.

Opportunistic Behavior in a Public-Private Partnership: the Case of Diverging Partners’ Interests in Tariff Setting in Kazakhstan

Introduction. The article aims to investigate the forms of partners’ opportunistic behavior in a public-private partnership (PPP). The article highlights key features of a PPP that involves construction and operation of a railroad in Eastern Kazakhstan. Research methodology. This qualitative study employs in-depth interviews as a principal data collection method. Theoretical framework. The article’s theoretical underpinnings stem from highlighting the meaning of opportunism in general and from defining opportunistic behavior in a PPP in particular. Results. The article reveals the typical reasons behind opportunistic behavior such as intent to pay for unplanned project expenses and a need to turn project’s losses into profits. The article concludes that the government, by rejecting applications for tariff raises, aims at receiving the greater PPP value for money and, hence, serves the PPP interest as well as the interests of taxpayers and consumers. Conclusion. The opportunistic private sector partner behavior that pursues its own interest, rather than that of a partnership, diminishes the PPP value for money. Instead of raising a tariff, a private operator should look for ways of cutting costs and increasing the project’s efficiency. 

Tax Reform of Corporate Income Tax on State Level in the USA

Introduction. In proposing reforms for the corporate income taxation, it is necessary to consider the incentives generated by the current system of taxation and the effects that changing those incentives would have the significant impact on the economic behavior. Analysis. This paper proves that economic development policies and reform of income corporate taxation can significantly affects the growth of a state area, that increases in the growth of a local economy can benefits the overall national economy. Corporate income taxation can hinder the competitiveness of domestic industry by discouraging local investment in favor of investment in areas where corporate income tax rates are lower or where the tax is not levied. There are the examples of tax reforms of corporate income tax in States of Kansas, North Caroline, Michigan. Conclusion. This paper shows that R&D tax credits and State Business Tax Incentive Programs have significant and positive impacts on the growth of high-technology sector in the states.

Problems of ensuring the security of an individual’s economic trace on the Internet

Introduction.The article deals with the problems of ensuring the security of economic information of individuals on the Internet. The concept and forms of the economic Internet trace of the individual are investigated. Theoretical analysis. Fraudulent actions in a virtual environment directed against individuals account for a signifi cant proportion of the total number of cybercrimes. The main motive of the off enses is to obtain fi nancial benefi ts, and the method is the distribution and use of malicious software. The contradiction between formal institutions of economic cybersecurity and informal institutions of virtual fraud is analyzed, and the ways of its resolution are presented: tightening control and organization of harmonious interaction of economic agents. The forms of institutional coordination of subjects on the basis of market relations are investigated: the introduction of a cooling-off period during fi nancial transactions; the determination of the minimum amount of funds after which the transaction is subject to mandatory control by fi nancial structures and supervisory authorities; the establishment of the amount of funds that banks must return in a simplifi ed and unconditional manner to customers – individuals who have become victims of cybercriminals; the introduction of blockchain technology. Special attention is paid to the formation of fi nancial literacy of the population. The author notes an increase in cases of cyberbullying during the coronavirus pandemic. Results. The conclusion is made about the weakness of state and market institutions to protect the economic Internet trace of the individual. It is proposed to develop an appropriate state strategy to improve the security of the individuals’ economic information use on the Internet.