Food Security in the New Risks: Development of Methods of Strategic Planning

Introduction. In modern conditions the functioning of the national food market especially important to improve methods of strategic planning aimed at sustainable development of agri-food complex.

Methods. Among the economic methods of strategic planning the most in demand balance, regulatory and program-target method. The article suggests the direction of development of each of these methods. According to the program-target method – strengthening the integrated approach and the social orientation of the formation of the parameters of the State program of agricultural development and regulation of agricultural products, raw materials and food. On balance method – the use of the modified model of interbranch balance agricultural complex, which allows to coordinate the parameters of incomes of the population in the context of social and family groups, the personal consumption of basic foodstuffs with the volume of production of agricultural products and food imports.

Empirical Analysis. The basic trends in the sphere of food consumption, a comprehensive analysis is based on two sources of information: a study of the main parameters of food consumption using statistical data of Rosstat; summary of the results of a sociological survey that was conducted in IAgP RAS in Saratov region.

Results. The result of a comprehensive study of the scope of food consumption is a study ways to improve methods of strategic planning of development of agribusiness in the global socio-economic instability.

Foreign Practice of Socio Responsible Investment

Introduction. In the conditions of crisis and reconsideration of the main paradigms of development, social and responsible investment becomes one of the tools capable to provide «healthy» development of world economy. In the West the socially responsible investments (SRI) are considered as the mechanism of disclosure of innovative capacity of civil society. Research was based on methodology of the system analysis. The method of analogies, the comparative, statistical and expert analysis was used.

Theoretical part. The analysis of the Russian and western literature showed existence of different approaches to definition social, the social and responsible investments (SRI). The directions of modern social and responsible investments are extensive and various and include protection of the human rights, maintenance of justice and justice, legality, strengthening of responsibility (ecological, economic, international). Types, classification of SRI funds are allocated. The SRI main methods are activity of shareholders, screening of an investment portfolio, public investment. Development and distribution of social investment is connected with understanding of that corporations have serious impact on quality of life and on the future. Growth of number of socially conscious investors well influences business practice of the companies and stimulates positive changes in society.

Analytical part. The analysis of statistical data shows the big growth of the market of socially responsible investment, by estimates of the European forum of a sustainable development (European Sustainable Investment Forums, EURO SIF) for 2014 SRI volume sharply increased. More exact information on tendencies of the SRI market is given by the analysis of participants of an initiative the Principles of responsible investment of the UN (Principles for Responsible Investment Initiative – UN PRI). Growth of the market of socially responsible investment indirectly characterizes also increase in demand from participants of the market for non-financial information. The number of institutional investors – users services of the commercial information services using non-financial information grows. Conclusion. Indicators, directly or indirectly characterize growth of socially responsible investment in the developed countries of the world. As for socially responsible investment of financial sector in Russia, it only starts being formed. In the West social investments are considered as the mechanism of disclosure of innovative capacity of civil society. In our country development of consciousness of bulk of citizens, their welfare and activity in the financial market didn’t reach yet such level when they would seek to make the investment decisions the world better.

Peculiarities of the Present Stage of Realizing the Strategy of Import Substitution in the Agro-food Complex

Introduction. Strategic management of competitiveness is especially actual in the conditions of globalization, uncertainty of environment, changing the conjuncture of the world food market. The paper explores the conditions and factors of the present stage of import substitution in the agro-food complex.

Theoretical analysis. The paper shows the results and areas of studying the strategy of import substitution in the agro-food complex, the mechanisms of its support, and substantiates the short-term and long-term priorities. 

Results. Scientifically grounded are the prospects of realizing the strategy of competitive import substitution with the usage of methods of inter- branch management of the agro-industrial complex. The calculations of the full import capacity of production have been made. The monitoring of competitiveness of the agro-industrial complex and the data of expert survey have revealed the preferences and priorities of producers in the conditions of reciprocal Russian sanctions.

Econometric Modeling Studio Price Method of Geographically Weighted Regression

Introduction. Detection and measurement of interdependencies in the housing market is one of the key issues examined econometric methods. Compared with traditional methods of geographically weighted regression extends the understanding of how the units belonging to the set of specific geographical coordinates affect the relationship between the covariates and the price of real estate. In this regard, the aim of this study was to analyze the spatial differences in the price of one-bedroom apartments presented in the secondary housing market of Orenburg. Methods. We used the method of cluster analysis, graphical method, analysis of variance, the classical regression model and geographically weighted regression. Results. Parameter estimation of the global (general) model by least squares and geographically weighted regression, has shown that SMT has a better fit, and is proof of the spatial differentiation of the regression coefficients. Conclusions. When modeling the price one-room apartment to be preferred geographically weighted regression, since it is estimated regression coefficients for each object combination and therefore recognized geographic differences in the dependencies, it is difficult to display the total regression equation.

The Concept of Fictitious Commodities in the Modern Economy: General Ideas and Key Features

If we look at the modern economy we can see how significant the role of intangible assets and intellectual work has become over the last decades. These assets include fictitious commodities, and nowadays we have to analyze different definitions of this term, explain its basic characteristics and price formation strategies.
Theoretical analysis. For signs of bogus goods is investigated, which serves as the basis for the cost of the real goods. The article discusses various approaches to the determination of fictitious commodities, and basic theories of value creation. Results. According to the research we have defined the key characteristics of fictitious commodities, showed the differences between the value creation processes of tangible and fictitious items. Also as a result of my research the main signs of fictitious goods which in the subsequent will be able to give the answer to a question of were revealed what goods are fictitious and in what feature of the markets of such goods.

The Impact of Currency Policy of the Central Bank of Russia on the Dynamics of Economic Conjuncture

Introduction. Monetary and exchange rate policy of the Central Bank of Russia has a decisive influence on the dynamics of the macroeconomic situation. Theoretical analysis. State, the device performs the impact on the economy taking into account their own specific interests, whose main aim is the growth of the resources of the state budget. Monetary policy the Central Bank provides the first replenishment of the resources of the state budget. The modern condition of a conjuncture of the economy of Russia is due to the
impact of the crisis 2008 and the results of the state socio-economic policy. Analysis of anti-crisis measures of the government of the Russian Federation showed a shift in priorities assist in the direction of the business, ignoring the interests of the population. The devaluation
of the ruble 2009 and 2014 were conducted in the interest of growth of the mining industry and increase revenues to the budget. The results of this policy was the decline in economic growth and its fall. Results. Needed a change of direction of currency and monetary policy of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation in the direction of stimulating long-term economic growth of our country

Corruption Risks in the System State Procurement in Russia

Introduction. In modern conditions of great importance is the establishment of an effective system of public procurement in Russia. It is necessary to analyze the risk of corruption and conflict in this system. This is determined by the relevance of the study. Theoretical analysis. The main corruption risks are: taking bribes employee taking the decision to purchase; bribing decision-makers on the purchase by the customer; the provision of classified information (prices, terms and conditions) to third parties. Discussion of results. The basic contradictions in the system of public procurement are: the contradiction between the objectives of public procurement and the means to achieve these goals, between the selfish economic interests of the two parties to the transaction, between the public interest and the interests of participants in the transaction, that is, the commercial interests of parties to the transaction, between the need to strengthen the role of the state and the weakening of its role in modern conditions. This mechanism for resolving conflicts can be the development of infrastructure of public procurement, reducing the degree of monopolization of the market by increasing the participation of small and medium businesses through electronic procurement, as well as accessibility, transparency of information on public procurement and implementation of standards of quality of the management, hosting and maintenance of public procurement.

Modeling of Innovative Development of Economy on the Basis of the Two Sector of Endogenous Growth

Introduction. Addressing the issues of economic development is driving growth and welfare of countries. Economic development of a country depends on the competitive advantages of the industrial complex and primarily commodity sector of the economy. Theoretical analysis. In the article the theory of imitation and innovation in the framework of endogenous theory economic development to study the dynamics of innovative development of countries with developing and transitional economies. The analysis of the innovative growth of economy in the conditions of increase of volumes of extraction of natural resources, conducted in the framework of the Solow model. Based on the study of foreign and domestic models of economic growth developed an approach that includes a simulation phase, which is the borrowing of advanced technology, and innovation, which dramatically increases the role of private research and development. Discussion of results. The article examines the factors hindering the growth of technological backwardness trap under- and overinvestment. Developed a model that describes the economy consisting of two sectors: the manufacturing sector and the sector of extraction of exhaustible resource. It is proved that in the context of a multisector approach and the endogenous dynamics of technical progress, the nature of the relationship between sectors is complicated. Thus in this work the study of this dynamics is performed using the methods of numerical simulation and mathematical description of the production function of the studied sectors.

Non-targeted Use of Agricultural Land as a Damage Source in the «Municipal District-Region» System

The paper proposes a method to determine the size
of misuse of agricultural land at the regional level and municipal
areas. The purpose of research – to improve the methods of calculating
the value of the damage caused by inappropriate use of
agricultural land. Objectives: to determine the size of misuse of the
land under the Samara region; to generate proposals for improving
the methods for determining injury. Results. The study identified
three types of work, characterized by different structure damage and
temporary occupation of farmland. Each of them offered his own
method of determining the damage and the formula for its calculation.
The results have been tested under the conditions of the Samara
region. Conclusion. In the Samara region annually from 2.5 to 4.0
thousand hectares of agricultural land are not involved directly. To
evaluate the damage was tested a new method that can be used to
simulate the effects of man-made disaster and determine the value
of the damage at the level of the municipal district and the region.

Issues of the Vocational Education on Railway Transport

Nowadays the problem of internal staff training is
ever more actualized. Market conditions make the highest demands
on the process of learning both rank-and-file workers and managers.
Theoretical analysis. This article describes the problems of
personnel training in a reindustrialization, caused by the formation of
a new technological system. Characteristic features of these issues
make additional demands to system of an intra firm vocational education.
Research methodology. The article considers personnel
training on the example of JSC «Russian Railways» – the largest
number of employees in Russia. In the research process were studied
normative legal acts of the Russian Federation and inner documents
of the company, which are the basis for the formation of the human
resources capacity and the developing of forms and methods of the
staff training system. The article attempts to determine the required
competencies of employees of JSC «RZD» and partner companies,
due to the process of re-industrialization and import substitution.
Empirical analysis. The process of stuff training at JSC «Russian railways» is an educational vertical line in all railway networks which
produces the professional and personal development of employees
and managers. There are examined the features of the process
of staff teaching in railway transport connected with the specific
nature of the industry, the uneven distribution of the railway network
in the country. The article analyzes the main programs and
methods of training of various categories of staff. Discussion of
results. The analysed methods of stuff training of JSC «Russian
railways» and enterprises-partners supplying products for railway
transport represent one of the directions of import substitution problems
solution. The main stuff competences needed for the solution
of this task are defined.