Factors of Social Services Markets’ Restructuring in the Information Economy in Russia

Introduction. A modern economy, based on digital technologies and new consumption patterns, is restructuring not only traditional areas of business, but also markets that were not previously influenced by private capital. First of all, this applies to markets related to education and medical care. Theoretical analysis. The understanding of the modern theory of structural changes in the economic sector is based on the concept of structural shifts (qualitative changes) between the three main sectors (primary, secondary and tertiary) (J. Kruger, C. Clark, S. Kuznets), due to the uneven dynamics of their development (O. Yu. Krasilnikov). Theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of structural changes in modern economics are based on their assessment not as a consequence, but as one of the sources of economic growth (J. Lin). Based on the analysis of structural changes, conditions and tasks for an active structural policy are determined. Empirical analysis. The factors influencing the change in the structure of markets in the fields of medicine and education are decomposed. An analysis of the educational and medical services markets’ restructuring is carried out in the following areas: changing the nature of demand through new consumption patterns; the study of statistical information on the financial and physical volumes of the medical and educational services’ markets; determination of the state budgetary policy impact in the social sphere; assessment of disruptive innovations’ impact. Results. Among the most significant factors influencing the economic structure of the medical and educational sectors, there are such as changes in customer preferences and consumption patterns, market for relevant services’ restructuring and the emergence of new internal market niches, state policy that directly or indirectly affects the redistribution of financial flows within industries and the increased importance of modern digital technology application in the production of services.

Capital Market Structure Changes in an Emerging Digital Economy

Introduction. The structure of the capital market can be classified according to several parameters: time, institutional, organizational, etc. The article examines the functional structure of the capital market. Theoretical analysis. Various types of changes in the functional structure of the capital market due to the digitalization of the economy – human, monetary, currency, stock, credit and investment – are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to changes in the structure of human capital associated with the replacement of traditional economic activities (primarily based on the exploitation of natural resources) by technologically more advanced types. First of all, changes in the structure of monetary capital are the introduction of various electronic payment systems and non-state monetary systems based on cryptocurrencies. Shifts in the capital structure in the foreign exchange and stock markets are manifested in the transfer of major transactions into the virtual sphere. Changing the structure of credit markets in the context of digitalization has both positive (growth of lending) and negative sides (increase in overdue debt). Results. A conclusion is made about the contradictory impact of the capital market structure changes on economic dynamics in the conditions of digitalization.

Key Point of Modern Russian Economy

Introduction. It is theoretically and practically important to study the relations of the formation of a key point in the country’s economy development, since this will lead to a change in economic policy and to the improvement of economic relations. The article discusses the current problems of the country’s modern economy as a basic phenomenon of the need to form a key point in this process. Theoretical analysis. The concept of a key point of development, its modern characteristics and methods for its implementation, including innovative forms, are given. Discussion of results. In the modern Russian economy, there is a need to proceed to the formation of a key point in the economy development as an integral single existence of infrastructure instead of its fragmented development, which exists at present. Access to such a development is objectively necessary, although very difficult to achieve. Conclusions. The transition of the economy to providing a key point of development is objectively necessary. This requires substantial investment and changes in the existence of federal and regional authorities.

Digital Economy: Content and Development Trends

Introduction. The subject of the research is the basic properties and patterns of the digital economy development. Theoretical analysis. The methodology of the post-industrial and information society theory is used. It has been hypothesized that the digital economy is a new stage in the economy and society development. The structure of the information economy is revealed. New qualities of digital economy are defined, such as: the main type of product, transfer from goods production to service production, information-networking structure formation, change of proportions and destinations of investment assets, increase of creative work role, emergence of new management technologies, etc. Empirical analysis. The impact of digitalization on the activities of the state, enterprises and organizations, households and individuals is characterized. The features of the digital economy market relations development are substantiated. The influence of information and communication technologies and information resources on business functioning is shown. The growing activity of Russian enterprises and companies in the Internet is paid attention to. Trends and patterns of the digital economy development are revealed. The results can be applied in the development of concepts and programs aimed at accelerating the digital economy formation in Russia.

Russia’s Internal Debt Market Development: Formation Factors, Prospects of Change

Introduction. The article is devoted to the Russian Federation’s internal debt formation factors analysis, to the development prospects of internal borrowings market. The urgency of the issue related to the internal debt of our country is in the difficult geopolitical situation that has developed around Russia. Due to political tension, our country was partially limited from external sources of funding. Under these conditions, the most urgent now is the question of the Russian Federation’s internal debt, its current state and the prospects for its further increase. Theoretical analysis. The article analyzes three main factors of increasing the volume of domestic borrowing, namely: the president’s “May decrees”, low efficiency of their implementation and sanctions imposed by the US and the EU, which restrict access to external resources. Empirical analysis. An analysis was made concerning the prospects for government bonds demand, as the main instrument of government borrowing at the domestic market, among the largest holders of government bonds: banks and non-residents. Results. In the course of studying the causes of increasing domestic debt, the problem of limited demand for government bonds was revealed. At the end of the article, measures were proposed to remedy this situation.

Industrial Economic Systems’ Digitalization: Problems and Consequences of Modern Technologies

Introduction. The article is devoted to the disclosure of the essence of the industry’s digital transformation, which, according to the authors, is the key to building an economy of knowledge and obtaining measurable economic results by introducing cross-cutting technologies. Theoretical analysis. The fundamental factors influencing the increase of Russia’s global competitiveness in the context of its technological breakthrough are highlighted. The main modern trends are the huge amount of information that companies have to deal with, the rapid change of business models, the emergence of innovative management tools. The problems of industrial economic systems’ digitalization are analyzed, for the solution of which the adaptation of companies to new realities is required. It is digital transformation that can take the company to a new level of development and business efficiency. The article substantiates that the digital transformation of production and the legacy industries connected with it is a priority for all industrialized countries that have created their competitive advan It is proved that the digital transformation of production should be aimed at improving the efficiency, productivity and competitiveness of domestic industry in the world arena. Currently, this sector of the economy is undergoing major changes caused by the introduction of intelligent systems that promote the convergence of the physical and digital worlds. These extensive technological changes should be accompanied by the development of fundamentally new business processes at all levels of management.

Organization Competitiveness as an Institutional Regulation Object

Introduction. The problems of domestic organizations’ effective development and improving their competitiveness at the modern stage of economic development are of particular importance, since it is possible to assume a stable position in the market today only by offering high-tech and low-cost products that meet international quality standards. For this process to be fruitful, effective interaction between different institutions is necessary. As far as the impact of institutional regulation will be in line with current trends in the economy, the mechanisms for ensuring the organizations’ competitiveness will increase or weaken. Theoretical analysis. The article analyzes and summarizes various points of view, available in economics, concerning the definition of “organization competitiveness”. Results. The object of the organization competitiveness’ institutional regulation is defined, the author’s interpretation of the “organization competitiveness’ institutional regulation” concept is given, types of institutional regulation are considered.

Competence Approach as the Basis for Entrepreneurial Universities Development in the National Innovation System

Introduction. The Integration of Russian entrepreneurial universities into the knowledge geo-economic space requires the universities and faculty competencies formation in the field of entrepreneurial activity. Theoretical analysis. The works of domestic and foreign scientists and practitioners in the field of educational sphere entrepreneurship theories are studied, theoretical approaches to entrepreneurial University profile formation are considered, the basis of which is determined by the faculty. Empirical analysis. The author’s version of the Russian Entrepreneurial University formation concept is presented; principles defining the vector of its strategic development: consumer orientation, strong leader, collegiality, uniqueness, continuous development, strong control, diversification of activities are formulated and characterized. Results. The author’s approach to the formation of a theoretical competence model in an entrepreneurial university has been developed, the forms of entrepreneurial activity of a modern Russian university to generate economic results have been defined, general professional competencies of teachers and universities functioning in a global environment have been formulated.

Changing the Paradigm of Career Guidance in Postmodern Environment

Introduction. The contradictions between the paradigm of vocational guidance in the Industrial society and modern tendencies of the use of human capital are shown. Theoretical analysis. The hypothesis that postmodern has changed the essence of professionalization and career guidance is put forward and substantiated: in postmodernism conditions the choice of profession should be replaced by the description of possible educational and professional trajectories and their personal “fitting”. It is shown that postmodernism has changed the role of personnel, the importance of the education system. In particular, the postmodernism’s career orientation paradigm presupposes the employee’s readiness to live and survive independently in the conditions of constantly updated reality, being in a process that has no frames and final results. Results. The new paradigm of career guidance is to introduce to employees both at the stage of social start and throughout the working life the task to get practically acquainted with the widest range of professions, specializations, jobs. Postmodernism’s career guidance involves leaving the rigid framework profession to focus on obtaining and improving the set of competencies that are in demand in many areas of professional activity, based on personal characteristics, inclination and Motivation of the employee. As a result, the employee is in a permanent state of “discovering himself” and his opportunities in new professions to improve his competitiveness in the labor market constantly.

Economic Space Density as a Measure of Territory Potential’s Effective Use

Introduction. In the territory of modern Russia there is a compression of economic space to places of concentration that testifies the decrease of potential development opportunities of separate territories, the degree of their inclusion in economic activity, the efficiency of the territory resources use. Theoretical analysis. The understanding of the current trend in modern Russia is based on the concept of J. Friedmann’s “center-periphery”, which is a model of interaction between the central and the peripheral regions in the process of their development. Economic space density is one of its qualitative characteristics, which shows the concentration of economic activity, the degree of the territory’s saturation with economic objects. The main indicators of the regional economic density are the number of population and the volume of GRP per unit of area. All other indicators correlate with them and are derived from them. Empirical analysis. High density of economic space is typical for big cities, megacities and highly urbanized territories. It is these forms of settlement that are able to concentrate various spheres of economic activity and labor resources, which contributes to innovation activity and economic growth. The heterogeneity of economic space and the unevenness of economic growth and development create inevitable disparities between the center, the periphery and the province. Therefore, we can assume the existence of a direct relationship between the density of the economic space of a territory and the quality of economic processes occurring on it, which affects the level and quality of life of the population living in the territory. Results. Almost all regions of Russia have undeveloped territories, which at this historical stage it is impractical to develop economically as a whole. The most appropriate option would be to compress or concentrate their economic space, which would improve the quality of the space and make it possible to compare its parameters with other regions.