Economic

Influence of Consumers on Improving the Quality of Electronic State Services

Introduction. The article examines the process of migration of public services to the Internet space, taking into account the development of new information and communication technologies.

Theoretical analysis. The process of interaction between users of a single portal of public services with government agencies providing these services has been studied. The analysis of the influence of consumers on the transfer of public services to the electronic form with the purpose of improving their quality is analyzed, the main directions of such influence are identified, the influence of digitalization of the process of rendering public services on behavioral patterns of consumers is investigated. It is emphasized that in modern innovative conditions of the development of civil society, only a personal approach and emotional investment in the consumer can become a competitive advantage and a rational response to price dumping in the public service of the future.

Empirical analysis. The dynamics of registration of citizens in a single system of identification and authentication is considered. The trends of consumer influence on the process of rendering public services are indicated. The main provisions are confirmed that migration of the processes of rendering state and municipal services to the digital space also influences the behavior patterns of consumers.

Results. The conclusion is made that in modern conditions of public administration a person becomes the main reference point and the entire process of rendering public services is aimed at satisfying his/her needs.

Clustering in the Training System

Introduction. The development of the digital economy has a mixed impact on the development of individual spheres of the economy. Technological innovations introduced into production and non-production spheres involve personnel changes and the use of highly skilled labor. However, the system interaction of industries, markets, and spheres in the present time is shown poorly, dysfunctions arise, especially between the training of labor resources and their actual application in the production process. The solution to the problem is partly clusterization, which is formed in various spheres and branches of the national economy. Considering technological, information changes, as well as new qualitative characteristics of the workforce, a full-fledged mechanism for the formation of qualitative labor force in the modern economy under clustering conditions has not been created.

Theoretical analysis. Clustering is considered separately for economic sectors, the mechanism of interaction between the system of training and production combined into clusters is not clearly defined. Existing approaches to the cluster interaction system are generalized. Scientific works touching on the problems of interaction between the labor market and education focus on the problems, functions, dysfunctions of such interaction and do not take into account the types of clusters, their goals and the transformation of the education system in Russia.

Results. The evolutionary foundations of the application of clusterization in the Soviet economy make it possible to use clusters more effectively in the relationship between education and production in modern Russia. The models for the development of clusters of the USSR and in the conditions of the development of the digital economy are shown. The connections of cluster interaction with the system of personnel training according to the levels of the modern education system in Russia are shown.

Constrainsts of Commercialization of Innovations in Russia

Introduction. The nature of Russia’s current economic development encounters restrictions on the commercialization of innovations in the economy, the identification of which was the purpose of the study. In the presented research, the inconsistency of the quality of the structure of the industrial markets of the Russian economy, forming its innovative segment, and the intensity of innovation spread in Russia is presented as the main problem of innovative development.

Theoretical analysis. The article considers neoclassical approaches confirming that in the market of perfect competition incentives for innovation are lower than in the monopoly market. However, in the conditions of monopoly, there are limitations to the development of innovation activity due to high costs and low probability of discovery.

Empirical analysis is based on the analysis of the data on the 50 largest technology companies in Russia and 30 technological products “for people” made in Russia.

Results. The conducted research made it possible to reveal the presence of restrictions on the commercialization of innovations related to the organizational structure of the innovation market, the monopolization of markets and low income of the population.

Theoretical Questions of Information Support for Investment

Introduction. It is theoretically and practically important to understand and research questions of information support for investment, because only based on the development of good information is possible the activation of investment activity.

Theoretical analysis. Information support of investment exists as a combination of general and specific relationships that allow the development of investment activities speed up. Information support of investments exists at all levels of management and is specific for all subjects of the economy.

Discussion of results. In the modern Russian economy, the information process of investments is actually implemented in the form of obtaining knowledge by various investors about the availability and origin of proposals for the possibility of obtaining investment. This information is associated with the development of various forms of information and ensuring its accessibility while protecting the information.

Conclusions. Information support for investment has a number of features. Such information is available to its various users. This information has internal patterns of development, which ensures the availability of modern forms of information support for investments.

Reverse of Culture in Economic Science in Modern Research: Political Economic Aspect

Introduction. The article deals with the problems of interaction between economic culture and economic science.

Theoretical analysis. The evolution of the paradigm of studying the interaction of culture and economy is analyzed, the demarcation of these concepts is carried out, the reversion of economic science to culture is theoretically investigated, and individual and collective behavior is understood within the framework of universalism and uniqueness, which finds practical application in modern comparative studies. The importance of the socio-economic culture as a factor of sustainable development is underlined.

Results. If preferences and subjective values become exogenous values, then a convenient channel for cultural penetration into the classical model of economic behavior appears, which undoubtedly enriches the orthodox economic theory. If exogenous variables are not included in the analysis, then culture cannot be imagined as a source of constraints in the rational choice model, since individuals do not have perfect information and are forced to avoid uncertainty, they “invent” (evolutionally adapt) institutions: social rules and norms of behavior; that make the surrounding reality more predictable, institutions take root in society and contribute to the sustainability of development.

To the Question of the Interrelation of the Monetary Factors of Investment Demand and Efficiency of the Economy

Introduction. The shocks that occurred in 2014 in the country’s financial markets, which gave rise to the current crisis, led to an understanding of the decisive role of financial sector behavior in determining economic dynamics. Economic policy, long held in our country, only nominally having the right strategic goals, caused stagnation at the expense of the means by which it was implemented. The chosen model led to the collapse of production, a decrease in the efficiency of the economy, significant economic losses and additional expenses of the state to mitigate the negative consequences of economic dynamics. Theoretical analysis. The research methodology is based on the principles of system analysis. Empirical analysis. During the research, statistical, correlation and factor analysis were used; empirical-theoretical, comparative, research methods, the method of synthesis of theoretical and practical material. Results. The study confirms that in order to ensure the sustainable development of investment relations, monetary stimulation of investment demand and the formation of an effective state economic policy to stimulate investment are necessary.

Modeling the Dynamics of the Share of the Working-age Population in the Saratov Region

Introduction. The population change is an actual direction of research not only for economists, but also for sociologists, political scientists, and psychologists. The author presents the author’s results of modeling the population of the Saratov region of working age. Theoretical analysis. For the economy of the Saratov region, it is necessary to analyze the use of labor resources in order to carry out literate policies. The population of the region shows a negative dynamics, which in general affects not only the number of labor resources, but also the regional macroeconomic indicators and the labor market. Empirical analysis. The policy of economic development of the Saratov region and Russia as a whole is aimed at changing the boundaries of the able-bodied population, in this connection, the article models variants with changing upper and lower boundaries of working age. The use of the results of this study shows how much such changes are needed, and to what extent, they are possible at the present time. Results. Calculations of the model showed that in the Saratov region a complex demographic situation that requires the development and implementation of appropriate measures aimed at preserving the working-age population. Change in the upper limits of working age adversely affects the economic development of the region.

The Evolution of Classical and Neoclassical Theories of Territorial Labor Division and International Trade

Introduction. This article investigates stages of development of classical and neoclassical concepts of spatial economics. Theoretical analysis. The evolution of classical and neoclassical theories of the international division of labor and world trade reflected the objective historical conditions and tendencies: the global hegemony of Great Britain in the 19th century, the consequences of the Great Depression of 1929–1933, the global hegemony of the United States after World War II. The ignoring of dynamic changes of economy in classical and neoclassical theories of intercountry labor division is the investigations of their initial theoretical and methodological premises: models of the perfect competition, decreasing or constant return from scale, domination of formal and mathematical logic, lack of mobility of factors of production. Results. Smith, Ricardo, Heckscher – Olin, and Samuelson’s theories were serious and worthy attempts of a research of distribution of different types of economic activity in space. These theories are valuable products of evolution of an economic thought for studying in the context of history of development of the world economy.

The Genesis and Development of the Precariat in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan: Comparative Analysis

Introduction. Contemporary processes of formation of the information society, emerging of new technological structures and digital revolution radically change the character and institutional structure of labor relations that occurred in industrial age. New unusual forms of employment appear. They are still poorly included in the field of institutional regulation. These processes are especially acute in the former Soviet republics. The transition to market relations in these new countries led to the development of precarization processes. Theoretical analysis. In this article the analysis of the theoretical approaches to the definition of the concepts “precariat”, “precarization” carried out by Russian and foreign economists and sociologists is considered; the causes, criteria and structural elements of this phenomenon are determined. In the process of research there were studied scientific publications, Internet site materials and statistical organizations’ data of the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan, which characterize the processes of social precarization in both states. A sociological survey involving 420 respondents in both countries was conducted. Empirical analysis. The analysis of the scientific literature, statistical data and the results of the conducted sociological research show the existence of precarization processes both in the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan, however, there are certain differences. Results of study. A comparative analysis of the processes of social precarization in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan has revealed the objective causes and forms of its manifestation in these states, conditioned by the culturological features of the two countries. It is revealed that the intensity of precarization is somewhat lower in the RK than in the Russian Federation. The share of workers whose working conditions do not correspond to sanitary and hygienic standards is lower, informal employment tends to decrease. The survey of workers in the RK did not reveal facts of informal wages (“in envelopes”).

Advantages and Disadvantages of Cryptocurrencies Development

Introduction. In the information economy, along with the state monetary systems, non-state ones arise and develop. Some of them operate on the basis of so-called cryptocurrencies. The article investigates the pros and cons of the development of modern cryptocurrencies that use the global Internet. Theoretical analysis. The advantages of cryptocurrencies are analyzed, among which the main one is a high investment potential. It allows to attract financial resources for the implementation of significant projects in the real sector of the economy within the ICO by analogy with crowdfunding. Among the disadvantages of cryptocurrencies, the author highlights the following: separation from real production, high financial and energy costs, inequality of participants, the lack of control of state structures, the problem of security. Particular attention is paid to one of the first cryptocurrencies – Bitcoin. The Strong volatility of its stock price is marked. Results. There made a conclusion about the high risks of cryptocurrencies creating and developing at the present stage. At the same time, the author emphasizes the high monetary, financial and investment potential of non-state monetary systems operating on the basis of cryptocurrencies.

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