Comparative analysis of university models by their innovation activity

Introduction. Universities play an important role in the formation and transfer of new knowledge, its application and commercialization, becoming centers of intellectual development, scientific discoveries and technological progress. Innovative activity is one of the key success factors for a university in the field of domestic higher education. This determines the relevance of considering the directions of universities innovative activity development, taking into account various models of innovative activity, stages of the universities’ life cycle and their functions. Theoretical analysis. The analysis of university models (1.0–4.0) was carried out and the methods for implementing innovations, as well as the expected results of innovative activity, were considered. Depending on the performance of a particular function by a university, different results of innovation activity arise depending on the level of the university’s innovative activity when performing each of these functions and stages of the life cycle. The directions of the university innovative activity development are analyzed depending on its life cycle stage and a comparative characteristic of the university’s models according to the innovative activity methods is carried out. Results. The key directions for the universities innovative activity development are presented, including strengthening ties with industry and organizations for joint research, development and new technologies implementation, creation of special programs and structures that support innovation, increasing financial support for innovative projects and initiatives, developing a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship.

Tourism digitalization paradox

Introduction. The article substantiates the relevance of domestic tourism development, examines the domestic tourist flow dynamics, and pays attention to the importance of mass tourism development for Russian economy. Theoretical analysis. Institutionalization and digitalization are fundamental elements of the mass domestic sustainable tourism development matrix. It is noted that a direct appeal to the tourist services producers by potential tourists through digital institutions becomes a condition for mass tourism restoration of in our country. Empirical analysis. An important role in domestic tourism development is played by the creation of digital products, which include a mobile application-designer of tourist trips “Be your own tour operator”. The paper gives an example of building a tourist route in Samara, proves the advantages of using the services of the proposed application. Results. The formation of mass domestic sustainable tourism requires the production of a customized tourist product, which can be achieved by applying institutional and digital mechanisms to the tourism industry. The customization of the tourist product reduces the role of tour operators in the domestic market and increases the role of tour guides and other direct producers of tourist services, which is the tourism digitalization paradox.

Evolution and development trends of the world monetary and fi nancial system

Introduction. Structural changes in the world economy and trade and its financialization contributed to the growth of instability and necessitated the building a new structure for the world monetary and financial system. Theoretical analysis. The evolution of the global monetary and financial system, when the function of world money shifted from gold to fiduciaries and SDR, resulted in the formation of a two-level structure. The top level consists of countries with reserve currencies and, thanks to this, such countries have the privilege of forming long and cheap liabilities by creating public and corporate debt, financing the balance of payments deficit through monetary issuance. The rest of the countries that do not have significant sources of long-term investments belong to the lower level, since they are obliged to maintain the compliance of their national monetary base with the volume of international reserves. The development of the global monetary and financial system within the framework of such structure was supported by an increase in the volume of financial transactions and the appearance of derivatives, the purpose of which was not only hedging, but also speculation. Empirical analysis. It was found out that, while the chronic deficit of the trade and balance of payments and growing volume of public debt were not a problem for the United States for the last 20 years, a sharp increase of Federal Reserve System rates in 2022, that resulted in increased nominal yield of the treasuries, significantly increased the cost of debt servicing. The decrease in the degree of confidence in the dollar pushes central banks to diversify international reserves, as a result the share of gold in the structure of these reserves has begun to increase. Those countries that do not have reserve currencies are now more interested in CBDCs. Results. The increasing importance of tangible assets against the background of political and financial instability in the world, as well as the need to use modern digital forms of money, open up the possibility for the ruble to become one of the world’s reserve currencies in the new structure of the multipolar world monetary and financial system.

The role of artificial intelligence in the development of ecosystems in the Russian economy

Introduction. The article deals with the problems of ecosystems formation and development as new forms of organizational and economic relations in the Russian economy. Artificial intelligence and neural networks are studied as elements of the modern economic ecosystems construction. Theoretical analysis. The classification of ecosystem services and platforms is presented, the ways of their formation using artificial intelligence are investigated. Among the services provided by ecosystems, the following services grouped by fields of activity can be distinguished: in the field of information technology there are cloud technologies; in the field of life – social networks; in the field of finance – Internet banking. In the case of providing these services, artificial intelligence automatically saves almost all the information about the client using special filescookies. There are two ways of forming ecosystems with the participation of artificial intelligence: the creation of appropriate functionality based on a large financial institution and the formation of an intelligent platform based on a powerful Internet company or a mobile operator. From the point of view of the introduction of artificial intelligence elements and neural networks, the main ecosystems in the Russian economy are analyzed: Sber, VTB, Tinkoff, Yandex, Group and MTS. Results. Modern integration processes lead to the creation of metaverses based on ecosystems, in which neural networks and artificial intelligence play a crucial role. These trends require further study and scientific understanding, as well as the development of an appropriate state strategy for regulating ecosystems and programs for the introduction of artificial intelligence elements into economic development mechanisms.

The role and place of technological sovereignty in ensuring the Russian economy sustainability

Introduction. The peculiarity of the current period development determined the need to change the vector, format and scale of the structural transformation of the Russian economy. This necessitated the need for domestic development only on the basis of achieving technological sovereignty as the main factor of economic growth and a condition of national security. It is revealed that one of the reasons for the low level of its achievement is the low innovative activity of organizations and a small proportion of organizations creating technological innovations and developments in the subjects of the Russian Federation. Theoretical analysis. The article examines the place and role of technological sovereignty in increasing national independence. Various approaches to understanding the essence of technological sovereignty are considered. A retrospective analysis of the “technological sovereignty” category formation is carried out, its priority over the policy of import substitution is proved. Empirical analysis. The analysis of the organizations’ innovative activity indicators dynamics by subjects of the Russian Federation and by types of economic activity, as well as the dynamics of the share of organizations in the total number of surveyed organizations of the Russian Federation engaged in technological innovations is carried out. The results allowed to make a conclusion about the negative trend of most of the indicators’ values. The obtained results confirmed the need to revise the vector of domestic economy development, the research activities activation as the main factor of ensuring technological sovereignty. Results. The result of the study is the identification and systematization of priority areas and measures to ensure technological sovereignty. The specific characteristics of the sovereignties influencing the achievement of universal sovereignty based on the construction of a sovereign economy model are shown. Based on theoretical and empirical analysis, assumptions are made about the different sovereignties level of development in the Russian Federation.

The theory of economic development: Evolution of approaches and modern paradigm

Introduction. The relevance of scholarly justification of approaches to economic development is caused by the insufficient study of the economic development phenomenon, its nature and qualitative characteristics of the factors influencing the implementation of qualitative structural changes in the economy of the country. Theoretical analysis. The article summarizes the evolution of economic thought and historical transformation of attitudes concerning the study of economic development. Scientific approaches and studies of leading foreign and domestic scholars, which constituted the theoretical and methodological basis of the economic development theory, are consistently presented. The tendencies that served the modern theories of economic development formation are considered. Empirical analysis. Based on statistical data analysis the difference between the categories of «economic growth» and «economic development» is justified. The concept of economic complexity as a phenomenon that contributes to the qualitative transformation of the economic development factors is considered. The dynamics of the economic complexity index in the Russian Federation is analyzed. Results. The analysis of qualitative changes in the economic development factors in the modern mixed economy is conducted. The relevance of sustainable development theory and the concept of economic complexity application in the study of the economic development of states are demonstrated. The criteria of economic development in modern socio-economic conditions are formulated.

Possibilities аnd Limitations of Integration Interaction Between Universities and Business

The article explains the necessity of the integration interaction between universities and business in order to effectively develop the national innovation system. The article generalizes possibilities of such integration. One possibility is when universities receive free access to the implementation of valuable ideas to market through the establishment of a mechanism of an active technology transfer. In the article examines the basic forms, tendencies, and limitations of the integration interaction between universities and business.

Interrelation Between Technical Requipment and Economic-Organizing Mechanism of Foreign Economic Activity

The present article is devoted to one of the most urgent items of the stat-of-the-art development of national (domestic) manufacture. The enterprises’ development results in many ways depend on the state of production facilities and rate of competitiveness in the external market. Beneficial effect is possible to be achieved only if sound and regular interaction between two directions of development, such as technical re-equipment and external economic space broadening, will be established.

ASEAN+3: Key Positions of Cooperation and Prospects of Development

In this article the author considers different cooperation between countries of South East Asia with key Asia’s countries (China, Japan, Republic of Korea). The attention is focused on economic cooperation of the countries and also prospects of cooperation’s development.

Analysis of Dynamics of Prices of Real Estate by Method of Geographically Weighted Regression

This article considers application of method of geographically weighted regression for analysis of dynamics of average price for square metre of real estate. Effectiveness of method of geographically weighted regression is illustrated in realistic empirical data.