Economic

Digital Economy: Content and Development Trends

Introduction. The subject of the research is the basic properties and patterns of the digital economy development. Theoretical analysis. The methodology of the post-industrial and information society theory is used. It has been hypothesized that the digital economy is a new stage in the economy and society development. The structure of the information economy is revealed. New qualities of digital economy are defined, such as: the main type of product, transfer from goods production to service production, information-networking structure formation, change of proportions and destinations of investment assets, increase of creative work role, emergence of new management technologies, etc. Empirical analysis. The impact of digitalization on the activities of the state, enterprises and organizations, households and individuals is characterized. The features of the digital economy market relations development are substantiated. The influence of information and communication technologies and information resources on business functioning is shown. The growing activity of Russian enterprises and companies in the Internet is paid attention to. Trends and patterns of the digital economy development are revealed. The results can be applied in the development of concepts and programs aimed at accelerating the digital economy formation in Russia.

Russia’s Internal Debt Market Development: Formation Factors, Prospects of Change

Introduction. The article is devoted to the Russian Federation’s internal debt formation factors analysis, to the development prospects of internal borrowings market. The urgency of the issue related to the internal debt of our country is in the difficult geopolitical situation that has developed around Russia. Due to political tension, our country was partially limited from external sources of funding. Under these conditions, the most urgent now is the question of the Russian Federation’s internal debt, its current state and the prospects for its further increase. Theoretical analysis. The article analyzes three main factors of increasing the volume of domestic borrowing, namely: the president’s “May decrees”, low efficiency of their implementation and sanctions imposed by the US and the EU, which restrict access to external resources. Empirical analysis. An analysis was made concerning the prospects for government bonds demand, as the main instrument of government borrowing at the domestic market, among the largest holders of government bonds: banks and non-residents. Results. In the course of studying the causes of increasing domestic debt, the problem of limited demand for government bonds was revealed. At the end of the article, measures were proposed to remedy this situation.

Industrial Economic Systems’ Digitalization: Problems and Consequences of Modern Technologies

Introduction. The article is devoted to the disclosure of the essence of the industry’s digital transformation, which, according to the authors, is the key to building an economy of knowledge and obtaining measurable economic results by introducing cross-cutting technologies. Theoretical analysis. The fundamental factors influencing the increase of Russia’s global competitiveness in the context of its technological breakthrough are highlighted. The main modern trends are the huge amount of information that companies have to deal with, the rapid change of business models, the emergence of innovative management tools. The problems of industrial economic systems’ digitalization are analyzed, for the solution of which the adaptation of companies to new realities is required. It is digital transformation that can take the company to a new level of development and business efficiency. The article substantiates that the digital transformation of production and the legacy industries connected with it is a priority for all industrialized countries that have created their competitive advan It is proved that the digital transformation of production should be aimed at improving the efficiency, productivity and competitiveness of domestic industry in the world arena. Currently, this sector of the economy is undergoing major changes caused by the introduction of intelligent systems that promote the convergence of the physical and digital worlds. These extensive technological changes should be accompanied by the development of fundamentally new business processes at all levels of management.

Organization Competitiveness as an Institutional Regulation Object

Introduction. The problems of domestic organizations’ effective development and improving their competitiveness at the modern stage of economic development are of particular importance, since it is possible to assume a stable position in the market today only by offering high-tech and low-cost products that meet international quality standards. For this process to be fruitful, effective interaction between different institutions is necessary. As far as the impact of institutional regulation will be in line with current trends in the economy, the mechanisms for ensuring the organizations’ competitiveness will increase or weaken. Theoretical analysis. The article analyzes and summarizes various points of view, available in economics, concerning the definition of “organization competitiveness”. Results. The object of the organization competitiveness’ institutional regulation is defined, the author’s interpretation of the “organization competitiveness’ institutional regulation” concept is given, types of institutional regulation are considered.

Competence Approach as the Basis for Entrepreneurial Universities Development in the National Innovation System

Introduction. The Integration of Russian entrepreneurial universities into the knowledge geo-economic space requires the universities and faculty competencies formation in the field of entrepreneurial activity. Theoretical analysis. The works of domestic and foreign scientists and practitioners in the field of educational sphere entrepreneurship theories are studied, theoretical approaches to entrepreneurial University profile formation are considered, the basis of which is determined by the faculty. Empirical analysis. The author’s version of the Russian Entrepreneurial University formation concept is presented; principles defining the vector of its strategic development: consumer orientation, strong leader, collegiality, uniqueness, continuous development, strong control, diversification of activities are formulated and characterized. Results. The author’s approach to the formation of a theoretical competence model in an entrepreneurial university has been developed, the forms of entrepreneurial activity of a modern Russian university to generate economic results have been defined, general professional competencies of teachers and universities functioning in a global environment have been formulated.

Changing the Paradigm of Career Guidance in Postmodern Environment

Introduction. The contradictions between the paradigm of vocational guidance in the Industrial society and modern tendencies of the use of human capital are shown. Theoretical analysis. The hypothesis that postmodern has changed the essence of professionalization and career guidance is put forward and substantiated: in postmodernism conditions the choice of profession should be replaced by the description of possible educational and professional trajectories and their personal “fitting”. It is shown that postmodernism has changed the role of personnel, the importance of the education system. In particular, the postmodernism’s career orientation paradigm presupposes the employee’s readiness to live and survive independently in the conditions of constantly updated reality, being in a process that has no frames and final results. Results. The new paradigm of career guidance is to introduce to employees both at the stage of social start and throughout the working life the task to get practically acquainted with the widest range of professions, specializations, jobs. Postmodernism’s career guidance involves leaving the rigid framework profession to focus on obtaining and improving the set of competencies that are in demand in many areas of professional activity, based on personal characteristics, inclination and Motivation of the employee. As a result, the employee is in a permanent state of “discovering himself” and his opportunities in new professions to improve his competitiveness in the labor market constantly.

Economic Space Density as a Measure of Territory Potential’s Effective Use

Introduction. In the territory of modern Russia there is a compression of economic space to places of concentration that testifies the decrease of potential development opportunities of separate territories, the degree of their inclusion in economic activity, the efficiency of the territory resources use. Theoretical analysis. The understanding of the current trend in modern Russia is based on the concept of J. Friedmann’s “center-periphery”, which is a model of interaction between the central and the peripheral regions in the process of their development. Economic space density is one of its qualitative characteristics, which shows the concentration of economic activity, the degree of the territory’s saturation with economic objects. The main indicators of the regional economic density are the number of population and the volume of GRP per unit of area. All other indicators correlate with them and are derived from them. Empirical analysis. High density of economic space is typical for big cities, megacities and highly urbanized territories. It is these forms of settlement that are able to concentrate various spheres of economic activity and labor resources, which contributes to innovation activity and economic growth. The heterogeneity of economic space and the unevenness of economic growth and development create inevitable disparities between the center, the periphery and the province. Therefore, we can assume the existence of a direct relationship between the density of the economic space of a territory and the quality of economic processes occurring on it, which affects the level and quality of life of the population living in the territory. Results. Almost all regions of Russia have undeveloped territories, which at this historical stage it is impractical to develop economically as a whole. The most appropriate option would be to compress or concentrate their economic space, which would improve the quality of the space and make it possible to compare its parameters with other regions.

Econometric Analysis of the Financial Market Structure’s Influence on the Russian Federation’s Economic Growth

Introduction. Currently, the study of the role of financial intermediation as an important auxiliary mechanism of economic growth has received considerable attention in the theoretical and empirical literature. The problems of economic and mathematical modeling of causal relationships between the rates of economic growth and the dynamics of the financial system development attract the attention of a large number of both foreign and Russian specialists. Most authors believe that not only depth growth, but also a change in the financial sector structure (the ratios between its various segments) can have an impact on economic growth. A quantitative assessment of the impact of the financial market’s type of structure (bank-oriented or based on the securities market) on economic growth is of practical interest. The aim of the work is an econometric study of the influence of the ratio of bank credit volume and the issuance of securities on the rate of economic growth in Russia. The observation period is from Q1 2003 to Q4 2017. Theoretical analysis. In Russia, a bank loan has penetrated into the economy much deeper than the securities market, which lags far behind in terms of depth and efficiency from the world average. The indicators characterizing the structure of the financial market are the volume of bank lending (with the allocation of loans to individuals and organizations) and the total market capitalization of shares traded on the Moscow Stock Exchange. The paper uses an econometric methodology for studying the statistical relationship between non-stationary time series, including tests for the Ingle-Granger cointegration, the study of causality and the response to shocks based on the vector-based error correction model (VECM). Empirical analysis. A comparison of time series of quarterly values of financial structure indicators, as well as Russia’s GDP for 2003–2017 is carried out. The article presents a statistical comparison of the level of development of the Russian stock market relative to the markets of developed and developing countries. The modern econometric Gretl package was used for calculations and modeling. Results. The cointegration of non-stationary time series has been established: gross domestic product, total capitalization of the Moscow Exchange, and bank lending to individuals and legal entities. The Ingle-Granger test found a cointegrating relation that confirms the long-term equilibrium relationship between variables and the authenticity of their correlation. It is shown that economic growth largely depends on the development of a bank credit and to a lesser extent on the growth of the market capitalization of shares. It is shown that in terms of contribution to economic growth, loans to organizations are more than twice as large as loans to individuals. Decomposition of the variance of forecast errors in the medium term revealed the influence of loans to organizations on the dispersion of economic growth and bank credit.

Retrospective Analysis of the Region’s Development Based on the Input-Output Balance Methodology

Introduction. The use of the inter-sectoral balance methodology expands the possibilities of the region’s economy retrospective analysis and thus contributes to the strategy improvement and increases the reliability degree of the socio-economic development forecasts. The planned economy and the market economy are characterized by a variety of General indicators in the regions’ development. The total social product, produced and used national income (net product) served for the first economy, while the gross regional product served for the second. These indicators are not comparable by themselves. Theoretical analysis. The article attempts to extend the period of retrospective analysis by developing an original method of ensuring the comparability of the generalizing indicators in the two periods. Empirical analysis. The materials of the reporting and planned dynamic inter-sectoral balances of the planned and market economies are used to expand the analysis significantly and thereby improve the base of forecasting and strategic management of the regional economy. Results. It is concluded that the category of regional product’s reproductive potential can be used as a tool of macroeconomic analysis. Its essence is determined by the region’s ability to produce, convert and consume regional intermediate and final product. The transition for the regional product from one system to another as a result of the developed equality and inequality in the system of balance of the national economy and the system of national accounts was carried out. The basis of the research is the inequality of the total social product and the national economic turnover and the equality of the economic turnover to the regional economy product.

Interregional Disproportions of Socio-Economic Development as Seen Through the Prism of Basic Theories of Regional Economy

Introduction. The socio-economic development of Russia is characterized by the presence of inter-regional imbalances that lead to the destabilization of a single economic space, crisis phenomena and economic losses. Theoretical analysis. The article outlines the main ideas of some basic theories of the regional economy in terms of substantiating inter-regional disparities in socio-economic development. It is shown that these theories should underlie the understanding of a natural, insurmountable factor of disproportions of territorial development and social inequality existence, which is associated with competitive advantages, location of economic activity and forms of settlement in the economic space. It is proved that inter-regional disparities in socio-economic development lead to inefficient use of economic space and the formation of local markets in regions characterized by significant differences. Results. Appealing to the theoretical heritage of the regional economy in order to search for objective reasons and identify trends and uneven socio-economic development of regions in modern Russia will allow you to choose the right strategy for managing regional development and minimize the negative effects of interregional differentiation.

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