Modeling the Dynamics of the Share of the Working-age Population in the Saratov Region

Introduction. The population change is an actual direction of research not only for economists, but also for sociologists, political scientists, and psychologists. The author presents the author’s results of modeling the population of the Saratov region of working age. Theoretical analysis. For the economy of the Saratov region, it is necessary to analyze the use of labor resources in order to carry out literate policies. The population of the region shows a negative dynamics, which in general affects not only the number of labor resources, but also the regional macroeconomic indicators and the labor market. Empirical analysis. The policy of economic development of the Saratov region and Russia as a whole is aimed at changing the boundaries of the able-bodied population, in this connection, the article models variants with changing upper and lower boundaries of working age. The use of the results of this study shows how much such changes are needed, and to what extent, they are possible at the present time. Results. Calculations of the model showed that in the Saratov region a complex demographic situation that requires the development and implementation of appropriate measures aimed at preserving the working-age population. Change in the upper limits of working age adversely affects the economic development of the region.

The Evolution of Classical and Neoclassical Theories of Territorial Labor Division and International Trade

Introduction. This article investigates stages of development of classical and neoclassical concepts of spatial economics. Theoretical analysis. The evolution of classical and neoclassical theories of the international division of labor and world trade reflected the objective historical conditions and tendencies: the global hegemony of Great Britain in the 19th century, the consequences of the Great Depression of 1929–1933, the global hegemony of the United States after World War II. The ignoring of dynamic changes of economy in classical and neoclassical theories of intercountry labor division is the investigations of their initial theoretical and methodological premises: models of the perfect competition, decreasing or constant return from scale, domination of formal and mathematical logic, lack of mobility of factors of production. Results. Smith, Ricardo, Heckscher – Olin, and Samuelson’s theories were serious and worthy attempts of a research of distribution of different types of economic activity in space. These theories are valuable products of evolution of an economic thought for studying in the context of history of development of the world economy.

The Genesis and Development of the Precariat in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan: Comparative Analysis

Introduction. Contemporary processes of formation of the information society, emerging of new technological structures and digital revolution radically change the character and institutional structure of labor relations that occurred in industrial age. New unusual forms of employment appear. They are still poorly included in the field of institutional regulation. These processes are especially acute in the former Soviet republics. The transition to market relations in these new countries led to the development of precarization processes. Theoretical analysis. In this article the analysis of the theoretical approaches to the definition of the concepts “precariat”, “precarization” carried out by Russian and foreign economists and sociologists is considered; the causes, criteria and structural elements of this phenomenon are determined. In the process of research there were studied scientific publications, Internet site materials and statistical organizations’ data of the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan, which characterize the processes of social precarization in both states. A sociological survey involving 420 respondents in both countries was conducted. Empirical analysis. The analysis of the scientific literature, statistical data and the results of the conducted sociological research show the existence of precarization processes both in the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan, however, there are certain differences. Results of study. A comparative analysis of the processes of social precarization in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan has revealed the objective causes and forms of its manifestation in these states, conditioned by the culturological features of the two countries. It is revealed that the intensity of precarization is somewhat lower in the RK than in the Russian Federation. The share of workers whose working conditions do not correspond to sanitary and hygienic standards is lower, informal employment tends to decrease. The survey of workers in the RK did not reveal facts of informal wages (“in envelopes”).

Advantages and Disadvantages of Cryptocurrencies Development

Introduction. In the information economy, along with the state monetary systems, non-state ones arise and develop. Some of them operate on the basis of so-called cryptocurrencies. The article investigates the pros and cons of the development of modern cryptocurrencies that use the global Internet. Theoretical analysis. The advantages of cryptocurrencies are analyzed, among which the main one is a high investment potential. It allows to attract financial resources for the implementation of significant projects in the real sector of the economy within the ICO by analogy with crowdfunding. Among the disadvantages of cryptocurrencies, the author highlights the following: separation from real production, high financial and energy costs, inequality of participants, the lack of control of state structures, the problem of security. Particular attention is paid to one of the first cryptocurrencies – Bitcoin. The Strong volatility of its stock price is marked. Results. There made a conclusion about the high risks of cryptocurrencies creating and developing at the present stage. At the same time, the author emphasizes the high monetary, financial and investment potential of non-state monetary systems operating on the basis of cryptocurrencies.

Аsynergism in the Sphere of Social Relations in Russia

Introduction. In modern conditions, the non-synergetic nature of social relations in Russia is of great importance. It is necessary to analyze the causes and consequences of synergism in the sphere of social relations in Russia. This determines the relevance of the study. Theoretical analysis. Synergism implies asynchrony in the interaction of social actors. Its causes are: ill-conceived economic policy in the field of reducing social inequality, social instability, weakening of the role of the state in the economy, polarization of interests of participants in social processes. These reasons lead to the formation of social contradictions in the economy. The main contradictions in social relations are: the contradiction between the need for wage growth and a sharp decline in real wages in the post-crisis period, between the public interest and their own interests, between the need to strengthen the role of the state in social relations and the weakening of the role of the state in modern conditions. Discussion of results. At the same time, the mechanism for resolving social contradictions can be strengthening the zone of responsibility of the state in the conditions of destabilization of social processes, the development of a promising policy to reduce social inequality.

Compensation of Distortions of Images of Traces on the Deformed Bullets for their Automated Comparison

Introduction. The purpose of work is: a research of ability of compensation of distortions caused by deformation of bullets. Theoretical analysis. In work examined bullets with deformation in the type of local annular expansion. This type of deformation is basis for compensation of complex distortions. Nodal point method selected for the evaluation of image distortion and compensation. Model experiment. Model of deformed 9 mm bullet obtained in 1:50 scale for determination of transformation coefficients. The table of transformation coefficients obtained by means of experiments for different diameter variations. Experimental studies. Experiments have been carried out for bullets, the shot from a Makarov pistol caliber 9 mm. The overlapping of images of non-deformed and deformed bullet showed before converting divergence of paired attributes in brinks images. Distortions of trace images on the deformed bullet compensated. Coinciding traces overlapped almost completely. Conclusions. The algorithm compensation of distortions of deformed bullets images develop. This system approved for symmetric deformation. The algorithm can be used for compensation of distortions of traces images on the deformed bullets.

Development of Models of Supply Chain Management in Retailing

Introduction. The situation in the retail trade of the Russian Federation is characterized by a number of negative trends: the lack of logistics infrastructure, reduced population activity of the population, active development of multi-format trade. Theoretical analysis. Supply chain of retail trade represent the complex network structure distributed in a large area production, storage and transportation facilities, including a large number of suppliers and retail outlets. The study resulted in a methodological base of logistics and supply chain management was systematic models, methods and concepts of supply chain management taking into account the specifics of flow processes in the retail trade. Results. The proposed algorithm for modeling supply chains in retail takes into account modern methods and concepts of logistics, but also based on the classification of trade flows by the degree of criticality of resources. The algorithm provides the possibility to control the suppliers, product lines and inventory. Systematic model of inventory management in manufacturing based on strategic management tasks. It is advisable to evaluate the effectiveness of supply chain modeling in retailing on the basis of indicators OOS and OSA.

Analysis of Banking Sector Influence on Economic Growth of the Russian Federation

Introduction. At present, the central problem for most countries in the world is to achieve sustainable economic growth rates. Traditionally, the factors of economic growth include labor, natural resources, physical capital, technology. Recently, the level of development of the financial system and, in particular, of the banking sector providing loans to the real sector of the economy with financial resources has been singled out separately. The aim of the work is to econometrically study the impact of bank lending on economic growth, testing on the Russian data of cause-effect relationships and reactions to shocks. The observation period is from the first quarter of 2000 to the fourth quarter of 2016 (68 quarter-mean values). Theoretical analysis. A comparative analysis of modern approaches, adopted in foreign and domestic literature, to study the influence of various factors on economic growth. The econometric methodology of the study of the statistical interrelation between nonstationary time series, including Ingle-Granger cointegration tests, causality research and shock responses based on the vector error correction model (VECM) was used in the work. Based on the recommendations of economic theory and analysis of foreign and domestic literature, the following macroeconomic and financial indicators were selected as factors of economic growth: the volume of investments in fixed assets, the unemployment rate and the volume of bank lending. Empirical analysis. Comparison of time series of quarterly values of macroeconomic and financial indicators of the banking sector of Russia for 2000-2016 is carried out. For calculations and modeling, the modern econometric package Gretl was used. Testing for stationarity, determination of the degree of integration (I = 1); tests for coin-tegration (confirmation of the presence of cointegration ratio); Cointeratation analysis, causality testing and shock response analysis using VECM. Results. Based on the Inglane-Granger test, cointegration of the nonstationary time series studied is established: GDP, the volume of bank lending, the volume of investment in fixed assets. A statistically significant dependence of GDP on the indicators of the banking sector and the real economy was found. The existence of the effect of bank lending on GDP has been quantified, but to a lesser extent than the impact of investment in fixed assets and unemployment. A vector model of error correction is constructed and the functions of the impulse response to variable shocks are investigated. The Granger causality test confirmed the interdependence between macroeconomic indicators and the volume of bank lending.

Development of Innovative Business and its Clustering in the Conditions of Globalization

Introduction. Modern economy in the context of growing globalization needs in forming effective innovative mechanisms and functional models of innovation development. Theoretical analysis. Globalization as a process covering all areas of social development has a strong influence on innovation policy, until its strategic aims, directions and mechanisms of implementation. One of the challenges of globalization becomes an innovative development of States. Appear firm fully focused on innovation, in particular the role of flagship of the innovative development of TNC and major national business structures. With regard to aspects of regional innovation development, the most important trend here is the clustering of production systems. The purpose of the article is to identify the main trends of innovation development in the context of increasing globalization, and on the other hand to analyse the peculiarities of regional specifics innovatizacii. Results. It is revealed, that in modern conditions of globalization processes more complex. It has been established that innovative economy increasingly penetrates into national economic systems and distributed to a growing number of countries, both developed and developing. Researched critical factors of the innovation economy. Proved the need for convergence between business and Government to better utilize all the benefits of globalization and innovatizacii of the economy. The role of TNCs and other business structures as the “locomotive” of innovation and economic development. Lists the main trends in the development of models of innovation policy. Give special attention to the clustering processes, which play an important role in promoting regional economic integration.

Effective Project Finance System: Principles and Practices

Introduction. Russian economic acceleration, innovative and digital economy establishment and development requires an increase in investment challenged to high technology sectors. Successful achievement of this objective defines finding the investments attraction mechanism. One of them is the project finance, which is a modern investment instrument in high-risk environments. Increasing importance of project finance implies a more detailed exploration of its mechanism, application characters in current Russian conditions. Theoretical analysis. The content, signs and background to use project finance was analyzed. It was shown that project finance is the riskiest investments attraction model, which defines the creation and use of effective risk management system. Project finance advantages and disadvantages for its participants in comparison with the other investments attraction methods were found. Empirical analysis. Valuation, industrial and regional structure of global and Russian project finance markets were submitted, their main development trends were identified. Results. Project finance is a modern effective investments attraction model in high-risk environments. It was considered that its effectiveness largely depends on right purpose, its relationship with development strategy, project realization specificities accounting on various stages of project life cycle, project company activity, development finance institutions, government regulation methods. Main directions of project finance improvement in Russian economy based on development trends of global project finance market were revealed. It was shown that project finance mechanism should be applied for realization of not only investment projects, but innovative as well.