tax reform

Economic and Financial Effects of Specifi c Taxes at the State Level in the United States

Introduction. This study describes states’ government experiences implementing new tax laws on goods with harmful properties. It provides a comparative analysis of new tax revenues in Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Alaska.

Theoretical analysis. This paper explores the unintended consequences of new tax laws on state level in the United States. This article analyzes potential economic, health and fiscal effects based on Pigovian taxes approach. Pigovian economics discourages negative social activity by increasing tax burden associated with consumption without eliminating it or forcing it underground. Accordingly, taxes imposed on harmful commodities are intended to encourage people and businesses to consider the extra social cost when they decide to undertake the taxed item.

Empirical analysis. This paper analyses the new tax laws in Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Alaska and tax revenues on harmful commodities. It provides comparative analysis of different types of taxes and fees in 19 states.

Results. The research shows the negative outcomes of its new tax initiatives –increased addiction rates, a increase level of expenditures on public health, etc. – with potentially positive ones – reduced prison populations, increased tax base, etc. The new tax policy shift will potentially cause a shift in expenditures from law enforcement to public health needs. New taxes laws on will increase state revenues on harmful commodities but also increase expenditures on public health and addiction-related costs.

Reforming the Tax System in Crisis and Post-crisis Period

Introduction. Tax reforms in times of economic recession are of particular importance. Proper and careful use of tax mechanisms can contribute to the improving both the socio-economic and political situation in the country. From this perspective, it becomes urgent to analyze measures and their effects taken by various States in the area of taxation during the crisis and in the postcrisis period. Theoretical analysis. The article describes the main changes in the tax legislation of the Russian Federation for the period from 2009 to 2016 and estimates the effects of the tax reform. It analyzes the experience of Great Britain, Italy and the United States in the implementation of anti-crisis measures to stabilize the economic situation through the use of tax leverage. Results. The result of the analysis carried out in the article was the generalization of the experience of the leading countries in the development and implementation of fiscal policy in crisis and post-crisis period.