constitution

The Category of “Public Control” in the Constitutional Legislation of Foreign States

Introduction. This article analyzes the constitutional legislation of foreign countries for the existence of a normative consolidation of the category of “public control” in it. The article studies the legal and technical approaches to determining the content of this concept, applied in foreign countries, as well as general and specific features of the institutionalization of public control in national legal systems. The main goal of the work is to study the peculiarities of the legal understanding and the rightful implementation of public control in foreign countries.

Results. The author analyzes the norms of the constitutions of foreign states, which strengthen the foundations of democracy. The article shows the dependence of the use of the category of “public control” in the constitutional legislation of countries depending on the national peculiarities of the organization and functioning of political and legal systems. Particular attention is paid to the influence of the Russian legal system on the development of legislation in the sphere of public control in the CIS countries.

Сonclusion. The author comes to the conclusion that foreign countries rarely use the concept of public control, replacing it in most cases with the concept of civic participation, which presumes essentially identical forms and ways of interaction between the state and civil society.

The Person and Citizen Rights and Freedoms Restriction in the Conditions of the Martial Law in the Russian Federation

Introduction. Two modes of implementation of the government – ordinary (usual) and extraordinary are fixed in constitutions of the states (special legal, extraordinary). The basis for introduction of the extraordinary mode is internal or external threat to the constitutional system of the state, to existence of the state. The purpose of introduction of the extraordinary mode is restoration of the constitutional law and order. A necessary element of the extraordinary mode is establishment of restrictions of the rights and personal freedoms. The constitution of the Russian Federation provides 1993 two types of a particular legal regime – state of emergency and the martial law. Purpose. The purpose of article is the analysis of the constitutional and legislative norms regulating restriction of the rights of the peXrsonality in the conditions of the martial law, and research of specifics of restrictions of the rights and freedoms of the person and citizen entered into the period of action of the martial law. Results. The analysis of the constitutional legislation allows revealing specific signs of restrictions of the rights of the personality in the conditions of the martial law. These restrictions: are entered for ensuring defense of the country and safety of the state; are additional in relation to already operating restrictions (basic); are the simplest types of restrictions – restrictions ban; are temporary; operate only on a certain territory. Conclusion. The conclusion that the restrictions of the rights and freedoms of the person and the citizen applied in the conditions of the martial law allow to expand powers of government bodies is drawn and in this sense, they are one of the tools allowing to reflect aggression and to restore the constitutional law and order. The constitutional legislation rather in detail regulates possibility of application of restrictions of the rights and freedoms in the conditions of the martial law.

Theory of Personality Constitutional Duties

Legal responsibilities of an individual are a kind of legal social norms. Every member of the society has a legal obligation (general, special, individual). Highlights from the legal obligationsenshrined in the states’ Constitutions. Purpose of article – to determine the total (theoretical) and specific constitutional duties of the individual. Results. Different theoretical approaches regarding the definition of «individual legal obligation» are analyzed as well as the justification of the values of the individual legal responsibilities to the state, society and citizens are identified. Common features of all the legal responsibilities of the individual are identified. Conclusions. Constitutional responsibilities are peculiar to all the features of the legal obligations. Constitutional responsibilities also have specific features caused by the Constitution of legal properties (they have a universal character, are the base for all other legal obligations, provide the ability to create order based on law in the society and the state, they are one of the conditions of existence of the state).

Sexual and Reproductive Rights and Freedoms in the Constitutions and Legislation of Foreign States

Introduction. The United Nations and the World Health Organization are completing the formation of an international system of sexual and reproductive rights and freedoms, carrying out the implementation provisions of this system into national law. The ongoing process obeys to a number of general rules, whose analysis is carried out in this article. Object. Universal patterns in the development of sexual and reproductive rights and freedoms, using as illustrations of this development the constitutions and the laws of India, Switzerland and Gabon. Results. The author analyzes the constitutional establishment and regulation of sexual and reproductive rights and freedoms in the studied countries. The studied countries are located at different stages of the process of achieving the highest possible level of compliance and protection of sexual and reproductive rights and freedoms. Conclusion. The process of achieving the highest possible level of compliance and the protection of sexual and reproductive rights and freedoms proceeds inductively. The article presents a model of this process.