Accounting the Accuracy of Measurements in the Conducting Forensic Research of Cold Bladed Weapons

Introduction. The main issue solved during the forensic research of cold bladed weapons is the establishment of the object’s belonging to the category of cold weapons. In this case, the measurement of the hardness of the blade is one of the main features, which determine the belonging to the cold weapon. Theoretical analysis. Analyzed compliance of the techniques of establishing the object belonging to a cold weapon to the requirements of metrological norms and rules. It is shown that conducting measurements is an important stage in the production of forensic examinations, and the correctness of the performance of measurements largely affects the correctness of the conclusion. Discussion of results. It is determined that the existing methodology is in contradiction with the existing metrological rules and the ways of overcoming these contradictions are indicated, namely, an algorithm for taking into account accuracy in measuring the hardness of the blade is proposed.

Firearms of Limited Damage on the Basis of the Tula Tokarev (TT) Pistol and Features of the Deposition of Shot Products on Obstructions of Non-biological Origin when Fired from Close Range

Introduction. One of the types of limited-fire barreled weapons (LLW) is the limited liability company created at the manufacturing enterprises of Russia’s limited liability company on the basis of models and models of short-barreled combat firearms (pistols and revolvers), by introducing into the design a sample of short-barreled combat firearms of the factory making changes made by legal replacement of its trunk under a regular cartridge on the trunk (imitator of the trunk) under the cartridge of a traumatic action, or adaptation trunk at regular cartridge for firing a cartridge traumatic preserving other original parts and components (shutter-casing frame of the trigger) of the arms of the sample, with the subsequent certification of the arms as a new model LLW. To models LLW, designed and produced in Russia in this way, it is possible to attribute and OOOP on the basis of a combat rifled short-barreled firearm – a pistol of the Tokarev design of the sample 1930/1933. (“TT – Tula Tokarev”) of caliber 7,62 mm (LLW on the basis of a pistol TT). In the current literature there is practically no data on the structural features of the trunks or imitators of the trunks of the LLW on the basis of the TT pistol and on the morphological features of the traces of the shot and the limiting distances in the detection of the traces of a shot from it on non-biological (tissue) barriers, as a result of which experiments were undertaken to establish the distance of detection of traces of a shot from the barrel of the LLW on the basis of the TT gun, and the study of the patterns of deposition of the shot products on the barrier, depending on t structural features of the trunk of LLW based on the TT gun and other factors (used regular traumatic cartridge). Methods of research. Experimental part. In the course of the work, certain structural features of the trunks of various models of LLW were built on the basis of the TT pistol (MP-81 pistol and the Leader-M pistol), after which the standard models of traumatic action of the corresponding caliber were fired from experimental models tissue targets from various distances from the muzzle of the trunk (or imitator of the trunk) of the weapon to the surface of the target (from 5 to 50 cm) and with the relatively tight contact of the muzzle of the barrel of the weapon with the outside The target is the target. Results of the study. The dependence of the picture of the deposition of the shot products (shot soot and unburned or half-burned particles of gunpowder) on the tissue barrier from the caliber and the design features of the barrel (imitator of the barrel) of the LLW models on the basis of the TT gun with shots from a close distance. Discussion of results. The possibility of producing differential diagnostic studies of gunshot injuries on fabric barriers formed during shots from individual models of LLW based on the TT pistol, depending on the caliber of the cartridge and the structural features of the barrel (imitator of the barrel), with the establishment of a close shot distance in the case of using or using this type weapons, allowing to distinguish them on the basis of these damages. The need to continue research work on the study of structural features of the trunks of other models of LLW based on the TT pistol (pistol “VPO-501 PS – Leader” under the cartridge of the traumatic action 10x32T, equipped with two rubber bullets, pistol TT-T under patron of the traumatic action 10x28T) and especially the formation of gunshot injuries on the fabric barriers for shots from these weapons models.

Compensation of Distortions of Images of Traces on the Deformed Bullets for their Automated Comparison

Introduction. The purpose of work is: a research of ability of compensation of distortions caused by deformation of bullets. Theoretical analysis. In work examined bullets with deformation in the type of local annular expansion. This type of deformation is basis for compensation of complex distortions. Nodal point method selected for the evaluation of image distortion and compensation. Model experiment. Model of deformed 9 mm bullet obtained in 1:50 scale for determination of transformation coefficients. The table of transformation coefficients obtained by means of experiments for different diameter variations. Experimental studies. Experiments have been carried out for bullets, the shot from a Makarov pistol caliber 9 mm. The overlapping of images of non-deformed and deformed bullet showed before converting divergence of paired attributes in brinks images. Distortions of trace images on the deformed bullet compensated. Coinciding traces overlapped almost completely. Conclusions. The algorithm compensation of distortions of deformed bullets images develop. This system approved for symmetric deformation. The algorithm can be used for compensation of distortions of traces images on the deformed bullets.

To the Question of the Formation of the Gilzoteks of Smoothbore Firearms Service and Hunting Weapons

Introduction. The legislation of the Russian Federation does not provide for the test shooting of smooth-bore weapons by law enforcement agencies. There are no catridge-cases repository of smoothbore weapons because of low criminalistic information, which, in turn, makes it difficult to investigate crimes committed using this type of firearm. The report considers the possibility of introducing catridge-cases repository of registered smooth-bore weapons. Conceptual possibilities for implementing this solution are described. Theoretical analysis. The developed forensic markers are offered as one of the necessary conditions for the implementation of the project for the creation of catridge-cases repository of smoothbore weapons. The considered system of ballistic marking of cartridge cases of smoothbore firearms civilian and service weapons, which is intended for the rapid (operative) establishment of the number copy of the weapon from which it was shot, followed by the identification of weapons by private criminalistic features. Empirical analysis. Experimental studies with forensic markers made using various technical methods have been carried out, and criteria for their effectiveness have been analyzed, which, in an identification study, can identify individualizing criminalistic features. The possibilities of forensic identification of tracks on the cartridge case reflected from forensic markers are examined with the aim of establishing by law enforcement agencies a specific specimen of smooth-bore registered weapons. Results. By introducing criminalistic markers at the legislative level, law enforcement agencies have the opportunity to create a base for criminalistic catridge-cases repository of smoothbore registered weapons, which will increase the effectiveness of investigating crimes using this type of firearm.

The Method of the Estimation of Uniqueness of Route Complexes in Secondary Traces

Introduction. The existing criteria for the pairing of traces on shot bullets can not be considered satisfactory. They turn out to be too strict, or do not take into account the identifiable information about the structure of the coincident traces. Therefore, today expert makes categorical conclusion about the identity of the compared traces mainly on bases on his own experience without assessing the probability of a random realization of this event. In this paper, a technique for estimation of the uniqueness of the route complexes in compared traces is considered. In general, the solution of this problem allows us to objectify the expert conclusions. Theoretical analysis. In work the model describing the structure of the routes displayed on the surface of a shot bullet is proposed. On the basis of this model, a method for assessment of the probability of a random coincidence of the routes (the uniqueness of the complexes of coinciding routes) is proposed. Priority list of the similarity of traces is proposed to be formed on the basis of an assessment of the uniqueness of complexes of coincident routes. Empirical analysis. The results of applying the proposed methodology using the proposed pairing criterion are presented. We used two models of weapons: AKM and Makarov pistol. Results. Comparison of test paired and unpaired traces with an assessment of the uniqueness of complexes of coincident routs showed the effectiveness of the proposed methodology and the objectivity of assessing the degree of similarity of the traces.

Capabilities of Forensic Examination of Traces on Fired Cases in Their Multiple Use (in Terms of Caliber .300 WIN MAG, .338 LM and 5,6х39 Hunter’s Cartridges)

Introduction. Recently in expert practice there registered the instances of using homemade reloaded rifled weapon cartridges. Objects and tasks. To consider the regularities of trace impression formed by reloading facilities on the microrelief of cases. To detect the most stable (specific, characteristic) features reflected on the reloaded cases thus enabling to differentiate between the traces of production mechanisms and arms. Experimental part. Examining the traces formed in the course of a shot and reloading was carried out with hunter’s .300 WIN MAG caliber cartridge cases ejected from .300 WIN MAG caliber Sauer 202 carbine; with.338 LM caliber cartridge cases ejected from .338 LM caliber HS Precission-2000 carbine; with 5.6х39 caliber cartridge cases ejected from 5.6х39 caliber Bars-4 carbine. Discution of results. In terms of the cases examined the analysis of resistance and stability degree of the process of trace impression by the used production reloading mechanisms was conducted. Characteristic features typical of reloaded (repeatedly used) hunter’s cartridge cases for rifled-barrel firing guns were detected.

Marks on Spent Cartridges Cartridge 18х45Т when Shooting from a Firearm Limited Destruction

Introduction. The urgency of the problem of the use of weapons of self-defense lies in its wide distribution, frequent cases of its application, the consequences of which are serious injuries (in some cases fatal), as well as the lack of complete data on the characteristics of various types of weapons of self-defense, necessary forensic experts, in the special scientific literature. Firearm self-defense, namely, long allowed to keep at home for security of their property and their homes. Other weapons of self-defense to the rightful owner is allowed to carry and use. When you use self-defense weapons for protection against attack, does not give the possibility of causing a serious or especially serious harm to health. Practice has shown that a self-defense weapon is used not only as a means of protection, but also as a means of attack. Experimental part. The article presents data of experimental research on the production of a trace pattern on the sleeve Chuck 18х45Т when shooting a firearm limited destruction. For experimental shooting, we used two models of this weapon, namely: «OSA PB-4-1» and « Strazhnik MP-461». The traces are studied visually and using a comparative microscope «LEICA». Discussion of results. As a result of experiments on the sleeve Chuck 18х45Т were found traces of firearms limited destruction «OSA PB 4-1» and «Strazhnik MP-461». This trail can be carried out to determine the model of the weapon and specific instances of weapons. On the body shells of many of the patrons were quite rude traces of the production mechanisms that hindered the identification process. The presence of a larger number of marks on cartridge cases fired in the gun «Strazhnik MP-461», unlike a pistol «OSA PB 4-1», apparently due to the fact that it was developed after the approval of the forensic requirements forensic science center of the MIA of Russia for service and civilian weapons and trace the picture of the gun on the shell casings more consistent with them. Conclusions. In accordance with criminalistic requirements on spent cartridges from the cartridges to the civil weapon has to be a trail suitable to identify weapons. Design and materials the cartridge cases of ammunition for firearms limited destruction provide when shooting the formation and preservation of a trace suitable for weapons identification. Traces of weapons of limited destruction in spent cartridges easily allow you to set group ownership of weapons. The main problems in the identification of weapons of limited destruction at the marks on spent cartridges, associated with rough handling of ammo in the factory, leaving traces of the production mechanisms that block the display of individual signs of weapons. Control shooting weapons of limited destruction, similar to shooting rifled guns, will improve control over the circulation and use of these weapons.

Influence of Inhomogeneities of the Surface of Caps on Variability of Static Firing Pin Traces

Introduction. One of the reasons for the variability of the firing pin traces is the gross inhomogeneity present on the surface of the capsules. The main types of not uniformity characteristic of a cap surface, and also their display in static traces are quickly investigated in this work. Experimental part. The surfaces of capsules of various cartridges of domestic and foreign production, as well as capsules “Zhevello” for hunting cartridges, were examined. The main types of inhomogeneities of the capsule surface are analyzed and classified. During the research it was shown that some roughness of the capsule surface does not smooth out when the striker firing pins and can introduce distortions into the static firing pin traces. Conclusions. The carried out researches have shown that the mismatched strongly pronounced features in pair traces can be explained by the presence of similar inhomogeneities on the surface of the capsule outside of the firing pin trace. This fact should be taken into account when comparing static traces of strikers. The work is of interest to firearm examiner specializing in the identification of weapons.

To the Question of the Legalization of Civilian Handguns in Russia

Introduction. In the article the possibility of introduction to legal turnover of short-barreled civil firearms is considered. Prerequisites and the imminent problems of society are described, the possibility of introduction of short-barreled civil weapon for his use by citizens for self-defense is considered, at the controlled and directed nature of process of legalization from law enforcement agencies and according to the tactical and technical and criminalistic requirements to this type of weapon agreed by them. Theoretical analysis. The purposes and tasks for which solution it is supposed to introduce short-barreled civil firearms into legal turnover are considered. The developed tactical and technical and criminalistic requirements as one of necessary conditions for consideration and coordination of the project on legalization of short-barreled civil weapon of self-defense are offered. Empirical analysis. The ballistic experiments showing criteria of efficiency of this type of weapon for assessment of opportunities his use by citizens for self-defense are made. Kinetic and specific energy of the striking elements is calculated. Results. Introduction of the concept on legalization of short-barreled civil firearms of self-defense in the territory of the Russian Federation the citizen with effective weapon for ensuring necessary self-defense, will allow to solve problems of providing with low probability of causing at its application and influence by a shell on the person of a lethal outcome. The possibilities of ballistic identification of short-barreled smooth-bore weapon for the purpose of establishment by law enforcement agencies of a concrete copy and its owner on criminalistic traces on a bullet and a sleeve are considered.

International Association of Firearms Examiners (AFTE): Review of Published Articles

Introduction. In every kind of professional activities, and especially in the fields based on research, the exchange of information plays an important role. This article reviews publications in the journal and presentations at the conferences of Association of Firearms and Toolmarks Examiners (AFTE). AFTE – general information. Contains information about one of the leading professional associations of firearms examiners, speaks about the structure of the association and its professional activity. Review of recent publications. This part reviews the most important materials which have been published for the past two years. Among them publications discussing the results of the examination of historical cases such as the assassination of President J.F. Kennedy. Articles about scientific justification of methods applied to forensic examination of firearms, cartridge cases and bullets, and gunshot residues. Articles discuss PCAST (US President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology) report on Forensic Science in Criminal Courts. Review of articles dedicated to methods of ballistic examination, examination of gunshot residue and restoration of obliterated serial numbers. Review of articles about the development of methods of computer analysis of toolmarks observed on cartridge cases and bullets. Review of articles and presentations on the equipment and computer programs which can b e used by forensic investigators; databases used for determination of the weapon type based on toolmarks on the examined bullets. Conclution. Summarizes the review and describes the scientific work of AFTE.