Economic

Sustainable Development Modeling of Southern Federal District

The article considers the cognitive modeling of sustainable development for the Southern Federal District, which includes the interrelated factors identification of sustainable development for the Southern Federal District to construct a cognitive map and the subsequent simulation scenarios for the region. Theoretical analysis. There are given the general characteristic of the Southern Federal District, its main indicators in line with the sustainable development strategy, which helped identify the interrelated factors of sustainable development for the Southern Federal District, with the goal of cognitive map development. Methods. Cognitive modeling explains the specifics of shapes and patterns, modification and development of complex systems, semi-revealing interrelated factors for the sustainable development of the Southern Federal District, with the aim of building its development strategy. Results. On the basis of the cognitive map simulation four most typical scenarios are presented for the Southern Federal District and their analysis with the aim of building a strategy for district development through a set of control actions to enhance sustainability.

Universities and Regional Development: Qualitative Research Theory and Methodology

Introduction. The rising role of universities in regional development in Russia determines the importance of research able to assess universities’ impact and influence on territory’s development. Theoretical analysis. Due to complex functions of modern HEIs and diversified socio-economic environment universities turned to address wider needs of social development then it was defined previously by the classical concepts of universities. The universities’ society or community engagement is one of the important features of modern universities. The mechanisms of the universities’ social engagement could be derived from various analytical frameworks. E.g. the H. Etz- kowitz’ Triple Helix Model or the model of the universities’ multilateral and multilevel networking suggested by P.Arbo and P. Benneworth. Methodology. The model of the universities’ multilateral and multilevel networking presents the background for the universities regional engagement qualitative research. The paper highlights the methodological approach to the universities’ regional engagement qualitative assessment, methods of qualitative analysis, and results drawn from the qualitative research. Conclution. The qualitative approach to the universities’ regional impact assessment is argued as the most relevant to the strategic management goals set currently by Russian regional universities in order to address the regional needs effectively.

Economic and Geographical Analysis of the Conceptual Alternatives for the Development of Gambling Zones in Krasnodar Region

Introduction. Sustainable development of Krasnodar Region (Russion Federation) requires effective ruling system in tourist industry, primarily the quality analytical and tourism planning system. This problem links to the evaluation of alternatives of development of gambling zones which is associated with the usage of social geography tools. Empirical analysis. Analysis is based on a study of a large number of publications, economic statistics, ours works, including our own experience in designing special economic zone «The New Anapa» and the results of the work of consulting agency «McKinsey». It consists of the financial feasibility analysis and socio-economic feasibility analysis of placing gambling zone «The Azov-City» in Scherbinovskiy district, «The Golden Sands» in Anapa district and «The Imereti Valley» in Sochi. Results. We have identified economic and geographic characteristics of organization of gambling zones, also advantages and disadvantages of existing concepts of tourism development. We have negatively evaluated the strategic inconsistency and unpredictability of the steps taken by the State, that complicate the current situation. Conclusions. Alternatives do not match the expectations of the majority of stakeholders: business can’t get profitability of the planned investment, people and authorities can’t get the social directed and responsible business, tour- ists can’t get the convenience of geographical location and quality of services.

Easterlin Paradox in Russia

Introduction. Life satisfaction is an important social indicator of life quality of the population. Modern researches show that income is one of the most significant components of life satisfaction. The article describes the Easterlin paradox with regard to Russia, provides a statistical analysis of the relationship income, wealth and the level of life satisfaction in Russia. The article presents the main theoretical concepts which used in the economics of happiness and for analysis of empirical models. Methods. econometric methods and statistical analysis: cluster analysis, a binary choice models. To evaluate the income effect on life satisfaction in Russia marginal effects of income and probability increment of life satisfaction were estimated based on binary choice model of Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) for 2012. Results. А family, gender (men are happier than women), good health, own car has a positive effect on life satisfaction. On average income has a positive effect on life satisfaction, but this effect is nonlinear. The results confirm the adaptation effect with saturation point in 60000 rub.

Appoaches to the Development of Commodity Sector Russia

Introduction. Problematic issues of economic growth based on the development of the commodity sector are relevant for Russia due to the fact that the added value of primary industry generates significant share of gross domestic product. Economic development of the country at all levels of government depends on the competitive advantages of the industrial complex and primarily raw materials sector. Theoretical analysis. The article presents the methodological aspects of the theory of imitation and innovation in the framework of endogenous growth theory to study the dynamics of innovation development in developing and transition economies. In the framework of the theory is justified, for Russia optimal point of economic growth are high-tech sector, who is at the stage of innovation development. Studied the interdependence of innovation and competition. Justified by the impact of state orders for the development of innovation in Russia. Discussion of results. A scheme for the implementation of government programs to improve the system of public procurement through subsidies and concessional lending resources sector. Proposed direct and indirect methods of management innovation resources sector. The basic directions of development of innovation in the form of the commodity sector of the state order. Typology of regions held by the criterion of subsidies. Methodical approaches to mathematical modeling of economic growth and stability in the region on the basis of the research potential of the region and the number of region-of subjects and objects. Justified determinants of positive and negative effects of economic growth and the need for restructuring of industrial sectors on the basis of intellectual, technological and geographical competitive advantage.

The Factors of Interaction and Cooperation of National Research Universities and Regions in the Process of Innovation Development

Introduction. National research universities, created in Russia in 2009 to improve the quality of Russian education, the integration of research and development of innovative economy, play a key role in the generation of new knowledge, a comprehensive transformation of innovations and translate them into real projects with the goal of launching innovation across all business sectors in cooperation with the authorities of the regions. Еmpirical analysis. Presents the results of a study of the opinions of specialists and experts involved in the implementation of the National research universities programs on existing relationships, mutual influence and the factors of interaction between universities, government and business in regional innovation systems. A significant aspect of the research were to factor into account the regional context of the needs and interests of the region in the plans and programs of the university, as well as the study of existing mechanisms of cooperation and active links between universities and representatives of the regional industry and government. Results. Major factors that facilitate or hinder the development of cooperation of regional actors: universities, government and business in regional innovation systems. There have been positive current opportunities National research universities, developed since the implementation of the programme of support to universities, as well as difficulties with the legislative and regulatory regimes and funding issues. Key words: regional innovation development, national research universities, cooperation of the university and the region.

The Influence of the University of Small Innovative Enterprises on Regional Development

Introduction. The urgency of studying of the problems of correlation of regional development and Genesis of small innovative enterprises at universities is due to the strengthening of innovative orientation of national economic development. Theoretical analysis. The article considers the small innovative enterprises, which are one of the leading forms of commercialization of results of research activities of higher education institutions. The article presents the stages of development of business initiatives at the state universities of Russia. The article reveals the features of the small innovative enterprises at universities in innovative development of the region and the country. Empirical analysis. To determine the impact of small innovative enterprises on the development of the Volga Federal district built an econometric model. This model defines the dependence of the growth rate of the gross regional product of the values of indicators such as the number of staff employed in scientific research and development the costs of research and development, used advanced production technologies, the number of small innovative enterprises. Conclution. Although small innovative business in universities is an important part of the modernization of the region and of the Russian economy and plays a leading role in the implementation of University innovations, formation of intellectual elite of the region, the involvement of students in the business, its influence on the development of the region is not so clear and not immediately be accompanied by the positive effect. It depends primarily on how well-developed innovation infrastructure of each region, and what is taking innovative measures.

The «Triple Helix» in the Innovation System Saratov Region – Interaction and Disadvantages of Functioning

Introduction. The article deals with the content of theories of «Triple Helix», developed by Western scholars at the beginning of the XXI century, the essence of which is the need for innovative interaction of three driving forces of the modern economy – the university community, industry and the public authorities, and analyzes the practical aspects of this interaction in the Saratov region, shows the advantages and disadvantages of the relationship between data elements. Theoretical analysis. Consideration of the interaction between the elements of the «Triple Helix» involves the use of methods of scientific research. These methods include systemic, complex, statistical methods, analysis and synthesis of the object, the use of special methods of research (interview data). Empirical analysis. In an innovative collaboration at the regional level, considering the possibility of capitalization available cash of material and financial resources of the region and it is shown that in the Saratov region to implement such a capitalization problematic due to the high credit debt in the region. Results. In conclusion, it is concluded that much of the functioning of the «Triple Helix» depends on the activities of the regional public authorities, which must implement appropriate economic policies to increase the capitalization of the available material and educational resources in the Saratov region, to prevent the «brain drain» from the region, to create favorable conditions for the implementation of innovations most gifted students, the scientific community and innovative businesses

АНАЛИЗ РОЛЕЙ УЧАСТНИКОВ «ТРОЙНОЙ СПИРАЛИ» В ИННОВАЦИОННОМ РАЗВИТИИ РЕГИОНА

Введение. Для эффективной реализации государственной инновационной политики необходимо формирование новой модели взаимоотношений триады «государство – наука – бизнес» в инновационной системе на принципах концепции «тройной спирали». Эмпирический анализ. Представлены результаты анализа анкетирования специалистов, участвующих в реализации программ научно-исследовательских университетов (НИУ), направленного на изучение авторитетных мнений экспертов о возможных направлениях развития путей взаимодействия университетов, государства и бизнеса для повышения эффективности инновационной системы России. Проведен анализ распределения ролей самими участниками инновационного процесса, что позволило определить положительные тенденции и выявить основные риски, угрозы в ходе реализации программы развития национальных исследовательских университетов. Результаты. Выделены основные направления становления стратегии управления НИУ для повышения роли в инновационном развитии региона: построение взаимоотношений с бизнес- структурами любыми возможными способами; самостоятельное независимое развитие НИУ во всех направлениях; тесное взаимодействие с задачами развития государства и региона и углубление связей с региональными и зарубежными партнерами для осуществления данных стратегий.

ЗАРУБЕЖНЫЕ ПОДХОДЫ К ОЦЕНКЕ ВЛИЯНИЯ УНИВЕРСИТЕТА НА РЕГИОНАЛЬНОЕ РАЗВИТИЕ

Введение. В последние десятилетия вопросы влияния университетов на региональное экономическое развитие и поиск наиболее эффективных механизмов и инструментов взаимодействия университетов и регионов привлекает все большее внимание исследователей и практиков. Теоретический анализ. Рассмотрены: степень влияния университетов на региональное инновационное развитие в зарубежных исследованиях в контексте взаимодействия с научно-исследовательскими лабораториями, малыми и средними предприятиями региона; пространственный эффект спилловера между университетскими научными исследованиями и производимыми в регионе высокотехнологичными инновациями в контексте географических ограничений; влияние трансфера академических знаний и технологий на производительность частных предприятий; влияние появления новых факультетов на региональные инновационные системы и временные лаги, кластерная классифика- ция университетов. Результаты. Большинство исследований максимально основаны на измеримых показателях: количество научного персонала, количество патентов, уровень продаж университетских разработок и т.д., однако нет единого мнения о качестве и методах применения данных показателей при оцен- ке деятельности университета. Также выявлена необходимость тесного взаимодействия между государством, бизнесом и университетами с целью стимулирования и поддержания научной и инновационной деятельности.

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