Economic

Compensation of Distortions of Images of Traces on the Deformed Bullets for their Automated Comparison

Introduction. The purpose of work is: a research of ability of compensation of distortions caused by deformation of bullets. Theoretical analysis. In work examined bullets with deformation in the type of local annular expansion. This type of deformation is basis for compensation of complex distortions. Nodal point method selected for the evaluation of image distortion and compensation. Model experiment. Model of deformed 9 mm bullet obtained in 1:50 scale for determination of transformation coefficients. The table of transformation coefficients obtained by means of experiments for different diameter variations. Experimental studies. Experiments have been carried out for bullets, the shot from a Makarov pistol caliber 9 mm. The overlapping of images of non-deformed and deformed bullet showed before converting divergence of paired attributes in brinks images. Distortions of trace images on the deformed bullet compensated. Coinciding traces overlapped almost completely. Conclusions. The algorithm compensation of distortions of deformed bullets images develop. This system approved for symmetric deformation. The algorithm can be used for compensation of distortions of traces images on the deformed bullets.

Development of Models of Supply Chain Management in Retailing

Introduction. The situation in the retail trade of the Russian Federation is characterized by a number of negative trends: the lack of logistics infrastructure, reduced population activity of the population, active development of multi-format trade. Theoretical analysis. Supply chain of retail trade represent the complex network structure distributed in a large area production, storage and transportation facilities, including a large number of suppliers and retail outlets. The study resulted in a methodological base of logistics and supply chain management was systematic models, methods and concepts of supply chain management taking into account the specifics of flow processes in the retail trade. Results. The proposed algorithm for modeling supply chains in retail takes into account modern methods and concepts of logistics, but also based on the classification of trade flows by the degree of criticality of resources. The algorithm provides the possibility to control the suppliers, product lines and inventory. Systematic model of inventory management in manufacturing based on strategic management tasks. It is advisable to evaluate the effectiveness of supply chain modeling in retailing on the basis of indicators OOS and OSA.

Analysis of Banking Sector Influence on Economic Growth of the Russian Federation

Introduction. At present, the central problem for most countries in the world is to achieve sustainable economic growth rates. Traditionally, the factors of economic growth include labor, natural resources, physical capital, technology. Recently, the level of development of the financial system and, in particular, of the banking sector providing loans to the real sector of the economy with financial resources has been singled out separately. The aim of the work is to econometrically study the impact of bank lending on economic growth, testing on the Russian data of cause-effect relationships and reactions to shocks. The observation period is from the first quarter of 2000 to the fourth quarter of 2016 (68 quarter-mean values). Theoretical analysis. A comparative analysis of modern approaches, adopted in foreign and domestic literature, to study the influence of various factors on economic growth. The econometric methodology of the study of the statistical interrelation between nonstationary time series, including Ingle-Granger cointegration tests, causality research and shock responses based on the vector error correction model (VECM) was used in the work. Based on the recommendations of economic theory and analysis of foreign and domestic literature, the following macroeconomic and financial indicators were selected as factors of economic growth: the volume of investments in fixed assets, the unemployment rate and the volume of bank lending. Empirical analysis. Comparison of time series of quarterly values of macroeconomic and financial indicators of the banking sector of Russia for 2000-2016 is carried out. For calculations and modeling, the modern econometric package Gretl was used. Testing for stationarity, determination of the degree of integration (I = 1); tests for coin-tegration (confirmation of the presence of cointegration ratio); Cointeratation analysis, causality testing and shock response analysis using VECM. Results. Based on the Inglane-Granger test, cointegration of the nonstationary time series studied is established: GDP, the volume of bank lending, the volume of investment in fixed assets. A statistically significant dependence of GDP on the indicators of the banking sector and the real economy was found. The existence of the effect of bank lending on GDP has been quantified, but to a lesser extent than the impact of investment in fixed assets and unemployment. A vector model of error correction is constructed and the functions of the impulse response to variable shocks are investigated. The Granger causality test confirmed the interdependence between macroeconomic indicators and the volume of bank lending.

Development of Innovative Business and its Clustering in the Conditions of Globalization

Introduction. Modern economy in the context of growing globalization needs in forming effective innovative mechanisms and functional models of innovation development. Theoretical analysis. Globalization as a process covering all areas of social development has a strong influence on innovation policy, until its strategic aims, directions and mechanisms of implementation. One of the challenges of globalization becomes an innovative development of States. Appear firm fully focused on innovation, in particular the role of flagship of the innovative development of TNC and major national business structures. With regard to aspects of regional innovation development, the most important trend here is the clustering of production systems. The purpose of the article is to identify the main trends of innovation development in the context of increasing globalization, and on the other hand to analyse the peculiarities of regional specifics innovatizacii. Results. It is revealed, that in modern conditions of globalization processes more complex. It has been established that innovative economy increasingly penetrates into national economic systems and distributed to a growing number of countries, both developed and developing. Researched critical factors of the innovation economy. Proved the need for convergence between business and Government to better utilize all the benefits of globalization and innovatizacii of the economy. The role of TNCs and other business structures as the “locomotive” of innovation and economic development. Lists the main trends in the development of models of innovation policy. Give special attention to the clustering processes, which play an important role in promoting regional economic integration.

Effective Project Finance System: Principles and Practices

Introduction. Russian economic acceleration, innovative and digital economy establishment and development requires an increase in investment challenged to high technology sectors. Successful achievement of this objective defines finding the investments attraction mechanism. One of them is the project finance, which is a modern investment instrument in high-risk environments. Increasing importance of project finance implies a more detailed exploration of its mechanism, application characters in current Russian conditions. Theoretical analysis. The content, signs and background to use project finance was analyzed. It was shown that project finance is the riskiest investments attraction model, which defines the creation and use of effective risk management system. Project finance advantages and disadvantages for its participants in comparison with the other investments attraction methods were found. Empirical analysis. Valuation, industrial and regional structure of global and Russian project finance markets were submitted, their main development trends were identified. Results. Project finance is a modern effective investments attraction model in high-risk environments. It was considered that its effectiveness largely depends on right purpose, its relationship with development strategy, project realization specificities accounting on various stages of project life cycle, project company activity, development finance institutions, government regulation methods. Main directions of project finance improvement in Russian economy based on development trends of global project finance market were revealed. It was shown that project finance mechanism should be applied for realization of not only investment projects, but innovative as well.

The System of Economic Relations in the Sphere of Self-employment of the Population of Russia

Introduction. The relevance of the problem of self-employment in Russia is justified by the need for its legalization, withdrawal from the shadow economy and attracting this category of the population to pay various kinds of contributions and taxes. While attempts of the authorities to legalize self-employed citizens and determine their legal status have not been successful, which indicates a lack of theoretical development of this phenomenon. The purpose of this article is to present the system of economic relations, expressed in the category of self-employment, and to make proposals for the successful functioning of this category of labor resources. Theoretical analysis. When examining the system of economic relations in the sphere of self-employment of the Russian population, the authors emphasize the specifics of self-employment in comparison with the more general category of employment, define self-employment as a process of including the population in economic activity, which is expressed in the independent organization of the production of goods or services without the use of an employed manpower in order to generate income. This allows us to show the role of these relations in the system of labor relations and property relations, the inconsistency of the self-employment interpretations available in the literature, and make suggestions on the determination of the legal status of the self-employed. Conclusions. Additional justification of the President’s proposal for granting not only tax holidays, but also exemption from taxation of the category of self-employed, which meets the criterion proposed in the article, is given.

The Specifics of the Transaction Costs in Line with the Formation of the Innovation Economy

Introduction. In the heart of the analysis of this article are problems of innovation economy that most clearly characterizes the existence of transaction costs. Over time, the structure of the transaction costs has evolved: in the information economy occupy a significant proportion of the costs of searching for information and costs of measurement in the knowledge economy is gradually gaining weight the costs of negotiating and concluding contracts. With the last quarter of the twentieth century, a particularly important place in the system of transaction costs took the cost of specification and the protection of property rights, as well as the cost of training and retraining of personnel, satisfying the needs of innovation. Theoretical analysis. Of the total transaction cost economic agents depends on their competitiveness in domestic and international markets, because lower costs enable innovative enterprises to carry out their activities efficiently, constantly modifying the escaping product. This gives the opportunity to occupy a privileged position compared with other companies who are forced to spend a large part of their profits not on improving technologies and to cover transaction costs. Therefore, it is important to not only the theoretical substantiation of the need to address the issue of transaction costs, but also offer practical ways to track the dynamics of this kind costs to reduce them. Results. Reviewed by transaction costs accompanying the interaction of economic actors in the transition of the Russian economy on an innovative path, as well as factors which complicates the measurement of transaction costs. Identified obstacles to the emergence of an innovative economy in our country. Proposed a series of measures to effectively reduce the transaction costs.

The Role of Financial and Investment Policy of State in Overcoming the Disfunction of Capital Market

Introduction. One of the serious consequences of capital market dysfunction which exists in Iraq›s economy is the imbalance of its sectoral structure. Hypertrophied development of extractive industries leads to inefficient investment activity, weak capital formation, and unsustainable economic growth. Overcoming these destructive dysfunctions in financial and investment sphere of Iraq›s economy is an urgent task of the state financial and investment policy. The necessity and possibility of solving this problem is the subject of the article presented. Theoretical analysis. The article presents approaches to assessment of impact of state financial and investment policies on development of investment activities, functioning of capital market and economics in general, and formation of its balanced structure.Empirical analysis based on the assessment of results of functioning of Iraq’s economy for the period from 2005 to 2016, and the analysis of the most important directions of the state economic policy of Iraq. Results. The ambiguous role of the state financial and investment policy in overcoming the dysfunctions of capital market has been revealed. Effective state economic policy allows to reduce the destructive consequences of the functioning of capital market. However, the ineffective financial and investment policy itself is capable of generating dysfunctions.

The Experience of Consumption as a Fundamental Principle of Reducing Risk when Using the Cultural Services

Introduction. Addressing the risks of a producer and consumer and evaluation of the experience of consumption in reducing risk in the use of all types of services and service culture, in particular, will allow to increase the competitiveness of the services culture. Theoretical analysis. Identified risk factors of producer services. The experience of consumption services in terms of process and outcome. In connection with such special services as the variability of quality shown preventive measures of the client to reduce risk. Conclusions. When the service runs the risk of the producer and the client. The manufacturer runs the risk of losing clients in the absence of necessary materials, as well as the deterioration of his skills. The consumer based on their own experience and that of significant persons of the contractor chooses the services that best meets its requirements. The most important for the user in many cases is his own evaluation of the consumed services. Use experience does not exclude the risk associated with the use of the new service (innovation risk), which is specified depending on the type of service activities. In most cases it is advisable that new services do not supplant existing and naturally complements them. 

The Current State and Problems of the Labor Market in the EAEC Countries

Introduction. The labor market is a fundamental factor in the economy of any country, and the functioning of the national economy depends on its dynamics and condition. A review article on the labor market of the EAEU countries. Empirical analysis. The article analyzes the state of the labor market and labor market problems, among which the authors especially highlight: market imbalance; Presence of restrictions, including legal ones, reduction of real mobility opportunities for the able-bodied population; Monopolized economy in some countries of the world, at its expense. An important place in the article is given to the review of the labor market of the EAEU countries and identification of the main problems, among which: the widening gap between supply and demand, skilled labor, the aggravation of the employment problems of certain socio-demographic groups of the population, the increase in the flow of labor migration from the EAEU member states to the Russian Federation, Lack of a common information base on employment issues of the EAEU member countries. Results. The article provides recommendations on overcoming labor market problems (the development of labor exchange between the member countries on a mutually beneficial basis, the regulation and activation of interaction between educational institutions and the state, companies, the expansion of the authority of the labor resources department of the Department of Labor Migration and Social Protection of the EEC ( Eurasian Economic Commission), creation of an information base on employment issues and vacancies in the EAEU countries).

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