Economic

Mathematical Justification of Economic in the Conditions of Falling of the Country in the «Underdevelopment Trap»

Introduction. Solving problems of technological development of Russia is an important task of formation of an innovative economy. In recent years there has been an intensification of mining operations and sales abroad, which can lead to rapid depletion of resources and the deterioration of the country in the future, but with competent macroeconomic policies, availability of raw materials and export of raw materials can be a major competitive advantage for the country. Theoretical analysis. The article analyzes the innovation of economic growth in terms of increase in production of natural resources, held in the framework of the Solow model, as well as evaluation and justification of the factors that negatively affect the economy. In the developed economic and mathematical model of growth based on the modification of the Solow model with constant saving rate. Discussion of results. In the simulations of the dynamics of technological development and analysis of the effect of the economy falling into the trap of underdevelopment in the lagging economy from the world’s technological leaders. It is proved that exogenous high prices for the resource at low technological level, capacity development and the level of education can lead to greater economic dependence on raw materials factor. With the help of mathematical modeling proved that at consistently high prices, the country will lose its potential for development and the economy will dominate the raw material component, further in the case of a fall in prices for the resource, the majority of investments in the economy again goes into the manufacturing sector, which, however, will have the potential for development insufficient to eliminate the backlog of the economy, may reduce the level of education in the case of inconsistency, which makes the output of the economy at world level impossible.

Socio-economic Factors of Formation of National Identity in the Conditions of Globalization

Introduction. The urgency of the problems of international cooperation associated with the exacerbation of national consciousness, increased tolerance to violations of national equality and distorted media coverage of conflict on a national basis. Theoretical analysis. The purpose of the article – to identify systemically important factors of national identity. The formation of national identity is determined by the spatial characteristics – border areas. Another factor that is closely related to the previous one, is a land. A feature of the above two factors is that they are not affected by the processes of globalization. The formation of national identity is important not only to the role of government, but also state-forming nation. Results. The analysis found that the largest transformational changes are subject to language, culture and economy that make up the framework of the national identity of any state. Therefore, at the highest level should be given to a system of measures and activities to institutionalize the influence of globalization processes and the development of protective mechanisms for the preservation of the most vulnerable places in the formation of national identity.

Strategic Aspects of Economic Security in the New Wave of Crisis

Introduction. This article formed the methodological approaches and the basis of the definition of economic security strategy for socio-economic systems, enterprises and organizations. Theoretical analysis. The basic directions of formation of economic security of business entities and the conditions of its implementation strategy, the necessity of inclusion in the strategy of economic security such an important component, as the property safety of enterprises and organizations. Empirical analysis. «Top» consider the practical cases to ensure the economic and property safety of functioning of industrial enterprises on the initiative. Results. It is proved that without respect for the enterprises action model, due to the need to ensure economic security, a new wave of crisis, they are waiting for a deterioration in the financial condition and missed opportunities.

Actuality of the Study of Economic Safety of the Enterprise in the Face of Global Economic Instability

Introduction. The theme of economic security is of increasing importance, the very dynamic, contradictory trends and developments in the modern world. Theoretical analysis. The problem of global economic security for our country. The global financial crisis raises the issue of the formation of a new concept of economic security that guarantees the independence of the country and its stability, improving the quality of life of the people, the development of science and technology. The purpose of the article is to analyze the national economic security at all levels of management, and pay particular attention to the economic security of business activity, as the stability of the State’s economic development depends on the economic security of every enterprise. It is crucially important to reveal the essence of the problem and related issues, to identify real threats to offer reliable and efficient methods of solving them. Results. Identified the essence and structure of economic security. Investigated the institutional aspects of economic security at all levels of management. Identifies internal and external threats to economic security, entrepreneurial activity and suggest ways of overcoming them. You must create a discussion platform to discuss issues of economic security of Russia, which in turn will not only identify problems but also to find a way out of them.

Innovative Development of the Saratov Region: the Arguments «Pro» and «Contra»

Introduction. The article proposes to consider innovation not only as a factor of economic development, as well as a tool to resolve difficult conflicts and overcome the limitations that can not be overcome by other means. Theoretical analysis. In the process of development of economic systems they formed conservative structures that this development is stopped. The paper put forward the hypothesis that such contradictions are not solved structures of the economic system. And they themselves contradictions and limitations arising from them can be overcome only through external innovation. Empirical analysis. Through the prism of the proposed model of the innovation process is considered the economic evolution of the Saratov region. By bringing the various arguments given assessment of the innovation process in the Saratov region at the present stage. Results. It is concluded that the formation of the economic system in the Saratov region of the complex insoluble contradictions: the branch structure of the deformation, the uncertain position of the region in the nationwide system of division of labor, the lack of public resources, the unattractiveness of the region for investors, low quality of regional management. According to the authors, the resolution of conflicts and overcoming the limitations posed by them is only possible at the expense of external innovation.

Cooperation between Business and Government in the Development and Implementation of Targeted Programs

Introduction. Within this article practice of interaction of the power and business during the developing and implementation of federal target programs by means of which priorities of social and economic development of the country are reached is considered. Target programs are one of the most important tools of the solution of social and economic tasks in the state. Theoretical analysis. Program and target approach is used both in a state administration, and in business planning. In a state administration it is used when developing comprehensive target programs, long-term and medium-term plans. The concept «target program» was used in the Soviet economy under the name «target comprehensive program» which represented initial category of program and target planning and management. In budget planning of the Russian Federation program and target approach began to be applied actively, since 2000. Now the target program is understood as system of the actions directed on the solution of definite purposes and tasks in established periods and with the established resource providing for achievement of certain indicators by performers of the program, and considering interests of all parties interested in implementation of the program. Results. Need of use of Territory Development Corporations at implementation of target programs is proved. Measures for coordination of interaction of Territory Development Corporations with authorities during the developing and implementation of target programs are offered.

Institutional Тransformation of the Underground Economy

Introduction. The underground economy as an economic system is investigated in the article. According to some estimates, the underground economy volume in Russia amounts to 46% of GDP. The purpose of a scientific article is to study the institutional mechanism of transformation of the underground economy system.

Theoretical analysis. The author explores the systemic signs of the underground economy, among which there are: integrity, openness, adaptability, reproducibility, structure, and hierarchy. The structure of the underground economy, including three sectors: socially dangerous (criminal) forms of the underground economy; various forms of opportunistic behavior of economic agents and socio-benign forms of underground activities (e.g., home economy), is examined. The main and derivative contradictions of underground economy are revealed. The institutional mechanism of transformation of the underground economy is studied; its options and contradictions are considered. The author analyzed two directions of transformation of the underground economy: restriction (liquidation) of socially dangerous forms and legalization (legitimisation) the most «healthy» elements.

Results. 
The author makes a conclusion about the necessity of state strategy of institutional transformation of the underground economy. The principles and objectives of institutionalization of the underground economy system in Russia at the present stage are defined.

Review of Modern Tools for Innovative Development Impact Assessment

Introduction. The problem of evaluating the performance of universities is exacerbated when it is required to quantify the efficiency of universities. To date, the search for methods of integrated assessment of the contribution of universities to the development
of regional innovation systems based on the relevant scorecard. Theoretical analysis. The basis of the technique of the contribution of universities in the evaluation of innovative development of the regions should be correctly selected scorecard constructed in such a way that they yield to quantify and were directed to assess the performance of universities on the location of the regions, it is important that considerations of accuracy and reliability of the assessment made. Empirical аnalysis. Based on the initial analysis of basic and specific parameters of 15 modern tools to assess the development of innovative techniques highlighted elements relevant for the construction the model of university’s impact assessment to innovative development. Results. The analysis outlined the possible elements for the construction of model of the university’s impact assessment. Regional innovation development: the system of indicators used to quantify the main innovation trends. Relevant objectives of the study is also the most common form of organization as large-scale evaluation of the analytical research method and index ranking of selected objects of study.

The Relationship and Interdependence of Convergence and Integration in the Economy

Introduction. The trend of globalization of the modern economy leads to the increasing relevance of convergence and integration, the relationship and interaction which do not cause doubts. Theoretical analysis. The article discusses the integration and convergence as processes of interaction between homogeneous or heterogeneous elements of different economic systems, which are closely interwoven with each other. Discusses the question of the primacy of processes of integration and convergence. The article presents economic entities of convergent and integration processes, and the levels of their development. Results. Convergence is very similar integration. Their similarity is determined by several aspects, firstly, they are conditioned by the international division of labour, secondly, they represent a form of conjugation of the interests and efforts of business entities in resolving various problems, and third, they represent a homogeneous or heterogeneous interaction of both processes. Ddialectic relationship between convergence and integration is not limited to direct connection «basis – superstructure». The author argues that convergence may act as a necessary condition for integration and its result. Also observed the emergence of new interactive elements of economic convergence and integration at the modern stage of economic development, which are innovative entrepreneurs.
 

Existence`s Institutional Factor of Objects Cultural Heritage as One of the Type Public Goods

Introduction. Maintaining specific type of public goods in the form of cultural heritage property appears to be not only a social and cultural, but also economic problem. This problem is associated with the growth of government spending on the protection and conservation-restoration of cultural heritage objects and the evaluation of the effectiveness of public spending. By supporting these kind of goods, the national identity of economic agents can be provided, strengthening Russia’s national security. Theoretical analysis. The author analyzes the public, merit and wards goods, based on methodology proposed by A. Ya. Rubinshtein, and views one of the public goods type’s specificity – objects of cultural heritage. On the basis of the economic and psychological methodology the role of cultural heritage property is explained in the formation of economic agents’ national identity at the micro, meso and macro levels. Empirical analysis. State institutions, which ensure the preservation of cultural heritage, are needed to be optimized in future, for the purpose of improving their efficiency. Results. The concludes that the preservation of cultural heritage objects determines the necessity of the state institutions’ effective functioning, which provides the national orientation of economic agents. The need of participation of non-governmental organizations in the conservation of cultural heritage as a specific type of public goods is being well-founded.

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