The Influence of the Design of the Barrel Firearms Limited Destruction on the Deposition Product Shots for Shots at Close Distance over a Hedge Non-biological Origin

Introduction. The theme urgency is defined as prevalence in the territory of the Russian Federation barreled firearms limited destruction (major crimes), major crimes than the barrel and damage the projectiles had shot out of him, obstacles of a different nature is the objects of ballistic research during the investigation of various incidents related to the application or use of major crimes in the solution of diagnostic problems of expert determine the distance of the shot from the muzzle face to the obstacles and determine the type and model of firearm (major crimes), shot from where the damage formed on the barrier ( including the garments). Methodology of research. Experimental part. During the preparation of the work have been established certain design features of the barrels of various models of major crimes as the production of Russia (pistols, «Storm-51» and «Storm-21», MP-79-9TM, Mr-80-13T, LL, 81), and major crimes of foreign production («GRAND POWER T10»). Splitting the data models of major crimes into three groups on the basis of the design of the barrel wopp his muzzle (the front part), then out of the major crimes of these models was carried out shooting staff for them by cartridges of traumatic action corresponding experimental tissue fire at targets from different distances from the muzzle of the barrel of the gun to the target surface (from 5 to 100 cm) and at relatively close contact muzzle end of the barrel with the outer surface of the target. Results of study. Study of damage on targets and product shots on the surfaces of the targets, the dependence pattern of deposition of products of a shot (a shot soot and unburnt or semiburnt down particles of gunpowder) on the barrier fabric to the size and construction of the barrel barreled firearms limited destruction (major crimes) for shots at close range. Discussion of results. Practical recommendations. The possibility of production of differential diagnostic examinations of gunshot injuries at the tissue barriers formed by shots from major crimes, depending on its type, caliber and cartridge design features of the trunk, with the establishment of a distance close shot in case of application or use of a weapon that allows to differentiate them on signs of data damage, which is especially important in the case of simultaneous use or the use of various models of major crimes. Noted the need for a centralized collection of experimental damage to the target tissue, obtained, if possible, all samples and models of major crimes, and are certified in the legal turnover on the territory of the Russian Federation (RF) with subsequent dissemination in electronic form (in the form of electronic images) throughout the system of forensic institutions of the RF.

Method of the Binarization of Images of Traces on the Shot Bullets for the Automatic Assessment of Their Suitability to Identification of the Fierarms

Introduction. Nowadays, automatic identification of weapons on electronic databases involves the analysis thousands of images of similar tracks, including images which are not suitable for identification. It is necessary to exclude from the analysis traces not suitable for identification for reduction of volume of calculations and increase of their efficiency. The aim of this work is the analysis of methods for assessing the suitability of traces to the identification and develop image binarization techniquie, which ensures minimal distortion of the width tracks on traces on the shot bullets. Theoretical analysis. There are two methods for evaluating of the suitability of dynamic traces to identify the weapon. The first is to count the number of lines, the width of the tracks and the spaces between them. The second is to find the autocorrelation function (ACF). The ACF form is close to a delta function form for a trace suitable for identification. The second method is more promising for the analysis of traces on the shot bullets. Experimental part. The authors proposed an image binarizatiom technique based on the construction of the image brightness profile. Application of this technique to images of dynamic traces, which are oriented vertically, allows adequately display the main tracks on binary images. Conclusion. The proposed method allows to get a binary image of traces on the shot bullets suitable for automatic analysis of their suitability for identifying and further comparing traces.

The Concept of Mathematical Model of the Assessment of Uniqueness of Sets of Coinciding Routes in Secondary Traces on the Shot Bullets

Introduction. The model of an assessment of probability of casual combination of sets of routes in secondary traces is considered in article. Development of quantitative criteria of justification of a categorical positive conclusion about criminalistic identity of the compared traces, and also algorithm of formation in the automatic mode of the priority list is the purpose of the conducted research. Theoretical part. Twodimensional images of traces of rifling fields used for the simulation. The formulas for estimating the probability of an accidental match of trails were obtained. Experimental part. Calculations performed on the developed formulas, the dependence of the probability of an event compared to the number of trails should be shown. Conclusion. The theoretical possibility of estimating the probability of a random alignment sets of trails (the degree of matching features unique complexes) and its use in practice is shown in this paper.

Quality Analysis of Background Microparticles Characteristic of the Product Shot

The paper deals with the content of chemical elements in the background, typical for product shots. The propagation problems of those elements and particles in the city environment were investigated. The typical elements and particles only for product shots were defined. Methodology of the study. Samples were taken at different sites and with different terrain surfaces. Samples were collected only in a solid form. Collection sites related to the frequency of finding the people around them and the probability of detection of substances similar shot products. The study was conducted by electron microscopy. Experimental part. Morphology images and chemical elemental composition of collected samples were obtained. It was found possible to detect product shots by: a) the difference in the qualitative composition of chemical elements shot and ambient background; b) in the absence of background particles from a circular shape having a certain size and the elemental composition of the characteristic shot. Discussion of the results. There was a dependence of the content of the background space Sampling. In this regard, the necessity of withdrawal of samples for studies not only the scene, but also environmental accident situation. Appearance and chemical composition of the particles typical for shot products were determined.

Metrological Aspects of Forensic Ballistic Reserch

Introduction. Conducting forensic ballistic investigations often involve changes to the results of which depend on the findings in many ways. According to local legislation, these measurements must meet certain requirements. Theoretical analysis. Analyzed compliance with the diagnostic techniques of forensic ballistic investigations homemade firing device for assigning it to firearms requirements of the Federal Law «On ensuring the uniformity of measurements». It is shown that the existing methodology is flawed, since it is in contradiction with the current metrological rules are not determined by random and systematic errors. Conclusions. It is proposed to either abandon the statistical processing of the measurement results and not to use the concept of the mean value, or increase the number of measurements for correct statistical treatment of results.

The Comparison of Digital Images of Firing Pin with a Dominant Features in the Form of Circles and Arcs

Introduction. Development of the algorithms for the automatic comparison of the digital images of firing pin is an important task of the forensic examination. This task is aimed at improving the efficiency of crime investigation involving the use of firearms. In this paper images of firing pin with the features in the form of circles and arcs with single center are investigated. The method based on modified Euclidean distance between circles of the similar firing pin was proposed to assess the degree of similarity of the traces. Preliminary processing. To eliminate the adverse effect of noise and various image artifacts were pretreated. Markers were placed to accurately determine the features in the form of circles. Method of searching paired tracks. Criteria based on modified Euclidean distance were developed for the formation of the priority list. Numerical experiment. In the numerical experiment database of 60 objects was used. Paired trace from firing pin array was included in top four of the prior list in 90 percent cases. Conclusions. The proposed algorithm allows to sort effectively and quickly the array of test objects by the degree of similarity of signs in the form of arcs and circles with relevant features of the test track.

Device for Experimental Shooting of Firearms and its Role in Providing Expert Research on Establishment of Circumstances of the Shot I. V. Latyshov Volgograd Academy of the Ministry of Interior of Russia,

Introduction. In order to meet the objectives for establishment of circumstances of the shot, the process of experimental shooting when shooting firearms propose a new design of a special device, allowing to obtain more accurate information about the gunshot residue in studies of objects with a complex shape of the outer surface. The article provides a comparative study of the traces of the shot from a Kalashnikov AKS-74U on the currently used flat targets and targets, mounted on a removable element with the ability to take the desired shape of the outer surface. Theoretical analysis. Now several designs of devices for experimental firing which along with advantages have also essential shortcomings are known. The main difference of the device presented in article from known is existence of a compound frame for installation of the target containing a removable element which is made of high-plastic material earlier. It allows to repeat a form of the object presented for examination at the time of a criminal shot. Experimental part. The study consisted of experimental firing, evaluation of the morphology of gunshot injuries and comparison of the topography of the distribution of gunshot residue in the area of gunshot injuries. Discussion of results. The analysis of traces of a close shot on flat and curved targets has allowed to establish distinctions of signs of influence of a gas-powder stream, thermal and mechanical effect of powder grains, adjournment of a soot. Conclusions. Found that when firing AKS-74U on flat targets and targets that are installed on the removable element, bent to the desired shape, there are differences in the morphological characteristics of gunshot injuries and topography sediment traces close shot. Thus, the use of the proposed device, comprising a removable element for attachment of the target, the shape of which follows the shape of the outer surface of the investigated object allows to obtain more accurate information about the gunshot residue in studies of objects with a complex shape of the outer surface.

Problems of Ensuring Compliance of Technical Characteristics of Civil and Office Firearms to Criminalistic Requirements of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia

Introduction. Problematic issues of providing the criminalistic requirements of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia imposed to firearms are considered in work. A sometimes weapons does not provide formation on the shot bullets and cartridge cases of the traces suitable for identification. Absence of any standards or specifications on a roughness of a relief of surfaces of the details forming traces is to it the reason. In addition, arms manufacturers poorly represent modern methods and technical means of identification of the weapon. Experimental part. In work the reasons of formation of traces on the shot bullets and shot cartridge cases not suitable for identification of the weapon are analyzed. Cases where the identification of the weapons on the striker traces is impossible due to the design of shells hunting cartridges are shown in the article. The negative influence of the production of primers traces at identifying of weapons on firing pin traces is quickly studied. Conclusion. Forensic requirements for identification of the weapon can be most effectively provided at close scientific and technical cooperation of the arms manufacturers and scientists specializing in area of judicial identification of the weapon.

The Concept and Functions of State and Municipal Services

Introduction. Legal regulation of state and municipal services in the Russian Federation has its own characteristics and peculiarities, which also determines the specific character of these services. This paper presents a theoretical understanding of the principles of state and municipal services. This article presents a theoretical understanding of the concepts and functions of state and municipal services. Administrative reform as a necessary result of the implementation of its major events marked the achievement of high-quality organizational support of the implementation of title and enforcement functions of the state. Adoption of a series of priority to the provision of services by public authorities and local authorities citizens and businesses has become the most important novel in the direction of the state and municipal government.

Purpose. The main objective of the paper is due to the administrative reform, in addressing the problems arising in the delimitation of the concepts and functions of the organization and provision of state and municipal services.

Results. This article analyzes the concept and functions of the aforementioned services and to compare the different approaches authors with regards to this issue.

Conclusion. We believe that the state (municipal) services must be referred to the executive and administrative activities of the relevant authorities, and themselves state (municipal) services to the direct-providing entities related services. However, these definitions do not establish a clear distinction between these concept, which implies their specific identity, that when they practice or the provision could lead to varying interpretations.

Expertise of Draft Laws within the Russian Lawmaking Process: Legal Theory and Classification

Introduction. The article is devoted to considering the institute of expertise of draft laws within the Russian lawmaking process.

Purpos. The main object of the paper is theoretical comprehension of the institute of expertise of draft laws within lawmaking process and classification of its particular kinds that Russian legislation comprises.

Results. The authors consider the scientific approaches to defining the correlation between the concepts of «lawmaking process» and «legislative process». The authors study the definition of the concept of «expertise of draft laws» putting aside the contiguous concept of «conclusion of a state authority body». It is proved that the distinctive attribute of expertise of draft laws is that it is carried out by competent persons – experts that possess special knowledge in a certain field. The authors provide an analysis of a set of legislative acts regulating certain kinds of expertise of draft laws within the stages of the lawmaking process. It is revealed that subjects, objects, terms of some kinds of expertise of draft laws as well as legal validity of expert reports are not determined in Russian legislation. It is carried out classification of the kinds of expertise of draft laws, embodied in the legislation on such criteria as an object and a subject of an expertise; an obligatory condition; the stage of the lawmaking process; legal force of expert reports.

Conclusion. The authors make the conclusion that a lack of scientifically based classification of the kinds of expertise of draft laws is the reason for which Russian legislation in the area contents many contradictions and gaps. It is proved that there is a need of systematization of Russian legislation regulating the institute of expertise. And this process should be based on the scientific studies and classification.