Cluster Approach in the Development of the Service Sector: The Regional Dimension

Introduction. Nowadays, clusters in the service sector formation becomes one of the characteristics of the Russian economy region development. In accordance with The Federal Aim Program for the period from 2011 to 2018, the Saratov region is not among the federal subjects which were included in the program of federal funding assistance to promote the creation of clusters in the service sector. Despite this, we consider the possibility to discover such cluster (emerging cluster or developed one) in the territory of the Saratov region. Theoretical analysis. The “complex” and “cluster” concepts have been investigated at theory chapter of this article. We make critique of the authors who have being confused these two different concepts. Also, we recommend that substitution and the same identification of these two concepts should not be allowed. In addition, there is the clusters in the service sector classification according to the core presence and the localized connection in this article. Empirical analysis. The article presents analysis of the Khvalynsk cluster in the service sector formation and the perspectives of its development. It have been proved that the Khvalynsk cluster is a nuclear- product one. Khvalynsk ski resort can be considered as the core of this cluster. However, Khvalynsk district possesses all the requisites and characteristics to turn from the product cluster into the territorial cluster, based on two cores, the winter cluster and the summer one. A set of measures to promote the Khvalynsk cluster in the service sector has been proposed in the article. Among these measures are the following ones: unique brand creation; the Khvalynsk district events as an instrument for promotion, Internet technologies application; transport infrastructure development. Results. The implementation of the proposed measures would be contribute to the realization of the potential of the Khvalynsk district as well as the creation of all-seasons cluster with the winter core (Khvalynsk Ski Resort) and the summer core (the complex of excursion and beach recreation facilities).

Spatial Panel Analysis of Fertility and Life Expectancy in Russia

Introduction. Spatial aspects of most important demographic indicators (fertility and mortality) need further studies. The purpose of this work is to assess the impact of spatial effects and external factors on the level and dynamics of the total fertility rate and life expectancy in European Russia. Theoretical analysis. Total fertility rate and male/female life expectancy made use of depended variables. Three variants of spatial weight matrices were chosen: inverted weights matrixes (γ = 1 and γ = 2) and gravity economic weights matrix (with GRP as economic indicator). Empirical analysis. The analysis based on the panel data for 55 Russian regions in 2004–2015 (660 observations). The hypothesis of available of spatial lag verified through Moran’s I. Three empiric models estimated and compared: spatial autoregression model, model with exogenous variables and spatial Durbin model. Results. This study proved the existence of spatial effects for both dependent variables. The best results showed herewith fixed effect models with inverted weights matrix. Spatial Durbin models (with relative capacity of ambulances as independed variable) has optimal level of log-likelihood.

The Rating Method of Complex Socio-Economic Development of Municipalities in Russian Regions

Introduction. Municipalities of the Russian Federation as well as Russian regions face the socio-economic development inequality at present. The study of the socio-economic situation at the level of municipalities and the complex socio-economic development rating estimation meets the needs of local governments. Theoretical analysis. The complex municipal socio-economic development rating method has been developed in the research at comparison of the main approaches to socio-economic territories’ ratings. The main methods of economic rating of the territories were analyzed and advantages and deficiencies of each were defined. The use of the integrated rating assessment method was substantiated in the article. Empirical analysis. The method of complex rating evalution has been proposed in the research. The proposed method Управление 313 is based on private ratings, which are estimated by the relative indicators that characterize economic development, investment activity, social sphere development and the standard of living of the population. Results. The approbation results of the offered method are presented. Private ratings of socio-economic development of municipal areas in the Saratov region were calculated and an integral rating of complex socio-economic development of these municipalities in 2017 was estimated. Discussion of the achieved results is presented.

The Statistical Analysis of Differentiation of The Post-Soviet Countries During Transformation of Economy

Introduction. Process of transition of fifteen countries of ex-member of the USSR from planned economy to market, was followed by basic changes in political, economic and social life of society. Various approaches to the undertaken reforms, and opposite strategic objectives, cause the distinctions of economies of the Post-Soviet countries observed now. Theoretical analysis. Works of many domestic scientists are devoted to a problem of the analysis of results of the period of transition of the Post-Soviet countries to market economy, they divide set of the Post-Soviet countries on the basis of various grouping signs, but along with advantages of these researches it is necessary to point to one essential shortcoming contributing a subjectivity share in the received results, it is high-quality approach to formation of groups. It causes need of application of quantitative approach and first of all multidimensional group. Empirical analysis. As a result of application to fifteen Post-Soviet countries of multidimensional group (more precisely than the cluster analysis) it has been established that in entire four reference periods (1991, 1999, 2009, 2015) three groups are allocated, at the same time in the last three periods a ratio and fullness of groups it is identical that points to stabilization of set. The first group had included the countries with impressive natural and human resources, the second the republics which have changed polarity from Russia with the European Union, the USA and China. The third group is formed by the Baltic States which were a part of the European Union and at the expense of it have considerably increased a separation from other Post-Soviet countries that is substantially shown in such indicator as GDP per capita. Conclution. Quarter of the century of development of the Post-Soviet countries out of the Soviet Union was led to their considerable deformation on the level of political and social and economic development. The republics which had good positions on the natural and human capital at the beginning of transition that it has allowed them to be integrated into global economy have achieved considerable progress. The Baltic States which were a part of the European Union and substantially, the improved macroeconomic indicators are also obviously allocated.

Cross-Country Analysis Influence of Banking Credit on Economic Growth

Introduction. The aim of the work is to econometrically study the impact of bank lending on economic growth rates on the basis of cross-country comparisons based on average data for 2005–2015. Theoretical analysis. In the article it is proposed to use the Schumpeterian model of convergence between countries with financial constraints, which was improved in [1] to analyze the influence of bank lending on economic growth. Empirical analysis. Based on the improved Schumpeterian model of convergence between countries with financial constraints, an econometric modeling of the impact of bank credit on economic growth was conducted for three groups of countries with a high, medium and low value of the human development index. Results. Empirical cross-country studies have confirmed the ambiguous impact of bank lending on economic growth in countries with different levels of socio-economic and financial development. In countries with high HDI values, the direct channel of the impact of bank lending on economic growth has been insignificant, and the convergence of growth rates has been achieved mainly through the process of technology transfer and increased production efficiency. In countries with an average HDI, lending has a direct positive effect on growth rates, but does not increase the likelihood of convergence through a more developed financial system. In countries with a low level of development, the only significant factor is investment in fixed assets. The indirectly obtained results show that only an investment credit for the development of the real sector of the economy, and not all credit in general has a positive impact on economic growth.

Formation of an Entreprenurial University in the National Innovation System

Introduction. Recently, the market of educational services is growing and for viability, the university needs to increase its competitiveness, expand the boundaries of its activities, develops its potential. Theoretical analysis. A number of scientists with different visions of the process of generating knowledge worked on the understanding of the role of the university in the economy, thus several theoretical models were developed in which the phenomena of the entrepreneurial university are disclosed. Empirical analysis. In connection with the absence at the time of the developed system of indicators for assessing the entrepreneurial potential of higher education institutions, a methodology for a comprehensive assessment of entrepreneurial potential was proposed, taking into account the indicators of the six main potentials of the university, which allows to determine how effectively they realize their opportunities and use their own resources to implement the entrepreneurial Function. According to the proposed methodo logy, the entrepreneurial potential of four Saratov universities was assessed and conclusions were drawn. Results. On the example of the Yuri Gagarin State Technical University of Saratov. Recommendations are developed to improve the organizational structure of the university as an entrepreneurial institution on the basis of the proposed list of entrepreneurial functions and structural and functional analysis of the university. Measures have been developed to develop the entrepreneurial activity of the university in the national innovation system.

Evaluation of Realization of Basic Functions of Regional Systems of Higher Education

Introduction. In the context of globalization, the competitiveness of the national economy is largely determined by the dynamics of the development of regional innovation and educational systems and the effectiveness of interaction among their subjects, among which regional higher education systems are becoming a significant driver of innovative growth. The purpose of the study is to develop methods for quantifying the effectiveness of the functioning and implementation of basic functions by regional higher education systems on the basis of a functional approach. Theoretical analysis. The sustainable and competitive development of the region’s economy in response to modern global challenges is largely determined by the quality of the workforce and the regional education system. Empirical analysis. Based on the analysis of the basic functions of universities, the results of the activity of the regional educational systems of 830 universities from 80 regions of the Russian Federation for 2016 were analyzed, the indicators characterizing the functioning of regional higher education systems were grouped into 3 groups according to the number of basic functions to trace the manifestations of each function. Results. The conducted research allowed to evaluate the functional dynamics, structure and volume indicators characterizing the quality of the implementation of the basic functions of regional higher education systems. Comparison of the results obtained by regions of the Russian Federation allows us to draw conclusions about the balance of regional systems of higher education.

Main Characteristics of Real Options in the Implementation of Innovation Projects

Introduction. Insufficient funding for innovation in Russia focuses researchers’ attention on studying and developing both the institutional environment and tools for assessing the effectiveness and risk of innovative projects and optimizing their organization in modern conditions. Theoretical analysis. Existing approaches to assessing the effectiveness of innovative projects, comparing the discounted income and project costs, consider the portfolio of innovative projects of companies and investors as static and create a limited picture of investment opportunities. Most innovative projects contain real options. And management of the investment innovative project should use the special methods that allow to take into account these circumstances. Empirical analysis. When using the real options method in assessing the effectiveness of innovative projects, it is necessary to take into account the following key parameters that affect the results and costs of the innovation project: the uncertainty of future income streams, the costs of owning and realizing options for the project, the present value of the future revenue stream, expected commercial value of the project, the cost of additional investments arising from additional development of project implementation scenarios, one hundred ka discounting taking into account the risk premium, the time period until the option is exercised and other conditions of exercise. Results. Accounting for the main characteristics of options for a more accurate multi-pricing of innovative projects compared with existing approaches based on the application of the real option method in the practice of investment project analysis will help to increase the accuracy of estimates and justify the feasibility of investors’ participation in the implementation of innovative projects. 

Development of Models of Supply Chain Management in Retailing

Introduction. The situation in the retail trade of the Russian Federation is characterized by a number of negative trends: the lack of logistics infrastructure, reduced population activity of the population, active development of multi-format trade. Theoretical analysis. Supply chain of retail trade represent the complex network structure distributed in a large area production, storage and transportation facilities, including a large number of suppliers and retail outlets. The study resulted in a methodological base of logistics and supply chain management was systematic models, methods and concepts of supply chain management taking into account the specifics of flow processes in the retail trade. Results. The proposed algorithm for modeling supply chains in retail takes into account modern methods and concepts of logistics, but also based on the classification of trade flows by the degree of criticality of resources. The algorithm provides the possibility to control the suppliers, product lines and inventory. Systematic model of inventory management in manufacturing based on strategic management tasks. It is advisable to evaluate the effectiveness of supply chain modeling in retailing on the basis of indicators OOS and OSA.

Entity and Negative Role of Freeriding

Introduction. The problem of freerides in the economy is being addressed. The example of passenger transport shows the negative impact and the limits of its development. The freerides problem is reflected both for the business that is providing the service and for bona fide users in the form of additional charges for servicing the freerides. Theoretical analysis. The freerides in various branches of the economy have been reviewed and summarized. Free services for natural persons, as exemplified by passenger transport, have been separately allocated. Description of the research object. The orientation of the control services to achieve full payment by all passengers for their journey in the electric train. In order to achieve full fare charges, the control of passengers in the electric train is considered at the interstation line of the road to be complete and continuous during the entire time of the train’s journey. The problem of finding an effective option for the provision of electric trains by supervisor’s staff is described. The solution to the empirical task. The task of optimizing the cost of maintaining the supervisors state by paying for travel on the train with different options for travel is being pursued. Results of the study. The phenomenon of freerides is not attributed to a negative phenomenon. The overall purpose of law enforcement is not to “eradicate” crime, but to “contain it at the optimum level”. The psychological aspect of the phenomenon, the systemic characteristics of the society also depend on the level of coverage of its freerides, which should be optimal for it as well. The systemic integrity of a society must be separated from the unsystemal state of the social community, but at the same time should not disrupt the production and targeting of a society. The second structural integrity must prevail over the first.