Research of Synchronization in Different Functional Areas of Logistics

Introduction. Synchronization in logistics can be considered in two ways: as synchronization due to external coordination influence and as synchronization based on self-organization of processes due to weak information interactions. These types of synchronization should be separated, their peculiarities and mechanisms of origin should be understood. For this purpose, the approaches to studying synchronization in logistics systems are analyzed. Theoretical analysis. An important factor that determines the mechanisms of synchronization is the functional area in which the logistic process takes place. The article describes features of synchronization for three functional areas: production, distribution and supply logistics. These tasks related to management in different functional areas where we systematized some concepts of synchronization methodology, and the type of models used. Empirical analysis. The quality information support to achieve synchronization requires additional material costs. It is possible to formulate the optimization task of ensuring synchronization in the inventory management system. The essence of this task that it is necessary to establish the optimal level of costs for providing synchronization. At the same time, it should be considered that achieving synchronization of flows through their adaptation requires additional costs associated with improving the quality of information services and adaptive management. Results. It is proved that the functional area of logistics is an important factor of synchronization. Based on the analysis of existing synchronization methods in different functional areas, criteria and goals of synchronization we established some relevant methods for each functional area and described models.

The Foundation of the Agricultural Development State Regulation

Introduction. In addressing the issue of ensuring dynamic and sustainable socio-economic growth of the agricultural economy based on internal factors of competitiveness, the distribution of state support among agricultural producers is of particular relevance. Theoretical analysis. The article discusses the theoretical and methodological aspects of agricultural state regulation. The need for developing a methodological base and tools for improving the distribution system of subsidiary support for agriculture is scientifically substantiated. Empirical analysis. The analysis is carried out and the dynamics of agricultural financing and the results of agricultural production are estimated. Based on empirical analysis, it was found out that the level of state support is characterized by a tendency to increase the share of costs per unit of result in comparison with industries, which justifies the need to develop principles and a mechanism for improving the distribution of subsidiary support to agricultural producers. Results. Methodological approaches to state support for agriculture are developed, within the framework of which methods and forms of state support are formulated. A system of principles of state support for agricultural producers that meets the vectors of sustainable socio-economic growth is developed. The development of methodological approaches to the state support improvement and the forms of its distribution on industrial and regional levels, based on a set of copyright principles, will make it possible to find key indicators for the effectiveness assessment of the compensating and stimulating subsidy for the regional industrial agrosystems of all forms, factoring in with the achieved level of agricultural innovation. The practical implementation of these proposals will ensure the harmonious development of all types of agricultural products, reduce the gap between the regions in the development of agriculture, ensure the growth of investment in agriculture, as well as increase employment and income of the rural population.

Indicator Method as an Instrument to Ensure Financial Security of an Economic Entity

Introduction. Any enterprise’s functioning in a market economy entails internal and external risks. Reducing their impact or leveling ensures a long-term existence of the business. In this view, the subject of the study is relevant. Theoretical analysis. The theoretical and methodological basis of the study was the works of Russian and foreign researchers in the field of economic and financial security. During the critical study of scientific publications it was determined that the interpretation of the financial security of enterprises definition is considered in terms of several approaches: complex, resource, financial. It was also found during the study that threats to financial security have a direct impact on production, personnel, information, etc. Empirical analysis. The main methods of research were analysis and synthesis, as well as the method of generalizing indicators. In the course of the study, it was found that the analyzed enterprise uses only quantitative indicators for evaluation, which are unable to identify most threats to financial interests. As a result, an open list of qualitative indicators was proposed that could assess the level of financial security. Results. The construction of the financial security risk matrix allowed us to establish that the total cost of implementing all risks per year can reach 90 million rubles, which is about 9% of the property of the enterprise. Having assessed the risks of financial security, we recommended that the management of the enterprise should pay attention to the realization of the profits loss risks due to the unstable position of suppliers and contractors in the market or the termination of their activities.

Firm Performance and CEO Influence

Introduction. The evolution of the corporate governance system determines the transition from external to internal development vector. The current research agenda is the search for new mechanisms of Russian corporations’ organizational effectiveness. In this regard, the effectiveness of company management is of particular importance. Theoretical analysis. The article identifies key factors affecting management performance. The central objective of the study is to assess the impact of the CEO turnover on the firm performance. The article clarifies the concept of “firm performance”. Based on the analysis of existing studies, factors affecting management performance, mainly the role of the CEO, are systematized. Empirical analysis. Fixed-effect panel regression is used as the research method. The information base is the data of Russian joint-stock companies for the period from 2006 to 2017. Results. Various specifications of the base model revealed a statistically negative short term connection between the change of revenue and the CEO turnover in Russian joint-stock companies. On the whole, the CEO turnover indirectly influences the effectiveness of management.

Methodological Foundations Forming a Corporate System for Managing High-Tech Projects in the Field of R&D

Introduction. Given the globalization of the economy and innovative challenges, economic growth and competitiveness of Russian industrial companies can only be achieved through their innovative development. High-tech companies in Russia are faced with problems of improving the efficiency of project management in the field of R&D, due to the need to review management tools and introduce project and portfolio management technologies, as well as the formation of a full-fledged corporate project management system and a portfolio of R&D projects taking into account the specifics of this sphere. Theoretical analysis. The theoretical and methodological basis of the study was the works of Russian and foreign researchers in the field of management theory, project and portfolio management, innovative and strategic management. The features of a high-tech project are identified, the types of projects in the field of R&D and their characteristics that affect the requirements for the project management system are considered. An analysis of existing approaches to the formation of a corporate system for managing high-tech projects showed a low level of elaboration of the issue under study. Empirical analysis. The main research method was the analysis of differences in the formation of classical project management systems and high-tech project management systems in the field of R&D. The requirements for a corporate project management system for various types of R&D projects are presented. Results. An algorithm has been developed for the formation of a corporate R&D project management system taking into account the identified specifics of projects. The results of the study can be used in the practical activities of high-tech companies in order to increase the effectiveness of project management in the field of R&D.

Regional Innovative Agricultural Systems’ Investment Policy Improvement Directions

Introduction. In solving the problems of creating a highly productive export-oriented agricultural sector of the Russian economy, the most important role belongs to the development of investment activity. Theoretical analysis. The article discusses the theoretical and methodological aspects of the regional innovative agricultural systems’ investment policy formation. The need for a balanced investment policy in terms of resource provision at all stages of the innovation chain is scientifically justified. Empirical analysis. The analysis and evaluation of the agricultural production dynamics by industry, the food exports and imports dynamics, the analysis of the agricultural machinery market development and trends in agricultural production investment support are given. According to the results of empirical calculations, the disproportions in the investment support of production processes and the contribution of the agricultural industry to the gross value added are revealed. Results. The organizational and economic conditions for the regional innovative agricultural systems’ investment policy formation, methodological approaches to the advanced scientific and technological achievements’ market development on the basis of stimulating demand have been developed. The practical implementation of these proposals will be aimed at increasing the investment attractiveness of agriculture, increasing the investment activity of agro-industrial enterprises, attracting investment in priority areas of the agricultural economy development in accordance with the needs of the regions in the transition to the model of export-oriented agricultural economy.

Current Problems of the Russian Companies’ Boards of Directors and Directions for Their Solution

Introduction. Being a corporate governance body, the board of directors underwent quite a long transformation in the framework of its functions in connection with the development of corporate regulators in Russia and the desire of domestic companies to implement the best international corporate governance practices. In the 90s and in the early 2000s, the board of directors was at the stage of formal functioning, starting in 2014 - at the standardization stage, implementing the agent concept. Today, despite compliance with Russian and international corporate governance standards, boards of directors have problems of a global nature that cannot be solved within the framework of agent theory. The development of boards of directors in domestic companies within the framework of resource theory is relevant. Theoretical analysis. The article analyzes the transformation of the external and internal characteristics of boards of directors since their appearance in Russian companies. The authors distinguish the stages of boards of directors’ development, prove the formal nature of the first stage, the development of the board in the framework of agent theory and the emergence of the third stage of development, which should correspond to the resource model of boards of directors. Results. In the process of the study, the board of directors’ problems were identified regarding interaction with managers, internal relationships, passivity and indifference of members, imbalance. As a direction for solving problems, it is proposed to build a council within the framework of a balanced council model in which balance is formed in a dynamic aspect.

Modern Condition and Prospects of Development of Remote Service in the Banking Industry

Introduction. The purpose of this article is to assess and identify prospects for the development of remote services in the banking industry, using the criteria for evaluating banking activities. Theoretical analysis. In the process of analyzing the remote banking services’ level of development, methods of logical and statistical analysis were used. Using these methods, the authors rank the activities of commercial banks. Empirical analysis. For a more detailed analysis of the bank’s activities, criteria for evaluating remote services are needed, which reflect all aspects of its work. The logic of its application is reflected in the developed algorithm for applying the mechanism for assessing quantitative and qualitative indicators of the bank. In the context of global digital transformation, the transition to Internet technology, one cannot but consider the level of remote servicing of the banking industry. An analysis of existing methods for assessing the banking sector revealed the problem of the lack of indicators to identify the level of distance services, their quality and quantity. Taking the existing methods as a basis, and eliminating the common disadvantages, the author created a number of factors with which you can evaluate the distance services of commercial banks. Results. Based on the results obtained, a methodology was developed to assess the effectiveness of the remote banking services’ level by qualitative and quantitative indicators. The quality indicators include convenience, accessibility, profitability, diversity and productivity of electronic services. The quantitative indicators include the number of customers of remote banking services, the number of self-service devices and the turnover of funds from the provided remote services. The methodology also takes into account the environmental analysis of the bank and the assessment of remote systems. 

Modelling of Innovation Process on Urban Public Transport by System Dynamics

Introduction. The authors analyzed the existing approaches to the study of innovative systems. It was shown that a deep and comprehensive study of their formation and functioning mechanisms can be performed by using simulation technologies. In the process of model development, the existing links between the participants of the innovation system must be systematized, and then quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated and verified. Theoretical analysis. Building pure mathematical models of innovation processes is quite difficult, so in world research practice much attention is paid to the development of simulation models, which allow to describe different scenarios of innovative technologies promotion. The authors compared these scenarios and chose the best option, then they systematized the basic approaches to innovative systems modeling. Empirical analysis. In practice, the development of the systemdynamic model is carried out sequentially. In the first step, the system or process under study is precisely identified to determine the potential boundaries of the modelled process. The model is presented as objects connected to each other within the established boundaries and existing behavior of the system. The final step is to build an influence graph, which allows to show the connections between all elements and determine the degree of their influence on each other. Results. The concept of the system-dynamic model developed by the authors is focused on the study of the innovation transfer process in the transport sector. The model considers the state influence, the size and nature of investments from various sources and mechanisms of information links formation between the participants of the transport process. Practical realization of the model will improve the investment mechanisms and study the involvement of universities into the innovational transport system. 

Indicators of the Regional Systems of Higher Education Efficiency Evaluation

Introduction. The search for effective models of higher education development necessitates the development of approaches and indicators for assessing the activities of regional higher education systems. The aim of the study is to develop methodological foundations and approaches to assessing the effectiveness of regional higher education systems by identifying indicators for a comprehensive assessment of current trends in their development, their implementation of their functions and their socio-economic effectiveness in order to develop recommendations for improving the effectiveness of the higher education system in Russia. Theoretical analysis. The effectiveness of the regional higher education system is evaluated on the basis of its functioning results, which are expressed in the implementation of educational, research and social functions. An urgent vector for the development of this problem is the development of a list of indicators that should, on the one hand, be accessible from available sources and quantitatively measurable, and on the other hand should reflect the contribution of regional higher education systems to regional development and evaluate their effectiveness in the context of involvement in regional development. Empirical analysis. Performance indicators should, accordingly, provide an opportunity to evaluate such results. The system of indicators for assessing the effectiveness of regional higher education systems is presented from the perspective of the functional aspect in terms of input and output resources. Results. The development of methods for assessing the effectiveness of the regional innovation system and the contribution of universities to regional development on the basis of the indicators considered will allow us to study various aspects of regional universities’ activities, creating tools for assessing their potential in promoting regional economic development.