Influence of the Vocational Guidance System on the Efficiency of the Labor Resources Use and Labor Productivity

Introduction. Given the high dynamics and stochasticity of demand and its magnitude in modern markets for goods and services, the issue of career guidance at all stages of an employee’s life cycle becomes highly relevant. An efficiently formed and functioning system of vocational guidance will allow you to avoid excessive expenditure of resources by the employee himself, the organization and the national economy as a whole, providing opportunities for increasing productivity. Theoretical analysis. Assessment of labor depends on such characteristics of a person who possesses it, as his intellectual and physical abilities. However, the assessment of the labor market has three aspects that depend on its subjects: employers, workers and governmental bodies. Each of the subjects has their own interests in the labor market and tools for their implementation. However, the analysis shows that the need to develop an effective system of vocational guidance is equally relevant for all subjects. The basis of the formation of this system, as well as the preparation of future specialists, should be based on close interaction between educational institutions and future employers, as well as analysis and forecasting of external trends regarding the labor market environment. Empirical analysis. The Russian labor market is characterized by high dynamics of job creation and liquidation in various industries, and the ratio between the number of jobs created and liquidated in different industries varies. This allows us to make a conclusion about the relevance of the redistribution of part of the released workers to other sectors, which actualizes the issues of vocational orientation and retraining of labor resources. Also for the Russian labor market the following trends can be identified: imbalance of supply and demand; the growing popularity of working professions; the need to continue working with staff available; the increase of employees working at home; the inevitability of increasing the age of employees of enterprises and organizations. Results. The way out of this situation is seen in building a system of preparing young people for the informed choice of a profession based on the formation of a new model of vocational guidance for young people and the development of an integrated strategy for developing the country’s economy’s personnel for several years (at least 5–7 years).

Global Digital Space: Prospects and Threats to the Economic Development of Countries

Introduction. Currently, the world is creating a global digital space. This process covers, to a greater or lesser extent, virtually all countries of the world. The relevance and vitality of this process is proved by the digitalization of not only the economy, but also of all spheres of human activity. Despite the increasing degree of research of this process, there raises the question of finding the threats and prospects that should be expected from digitalization for the economic development of our country. Theoretical analysis. The historical aspect of the digital economy development is investigated, the causes of this process are revealed. The article notes the first identification of this concept with such concepts as e-Commerce, file exchange through a peer-to-peer network. We consider the prevention of simplified understanding of digitalization, linking it only with these concepts. The data on the emergence of completely different phenomena, connected with the digitalization in the XXI century, the features of this process in different countries of the world in the context of the existing process of globalization are given. Both advantages and threats associated with the penetration of digitalization into the global space are considered. The benefits of digitalization are linked to the ease of copying, transmission and dissemination of information. The threats to the global space that are caused by the spread of digitalization can be associated with copyright infringement, copying, “piracy”, which ultimately results in the loss of investment. The influence of external political and economic threats that are applied to our country can no longer exclude Russia from the list of business partners in these new conditions of globalization. Digitalization erases all obstacles to cooperation between different countries, including Russia. Empirical analysis. The article analyzes the facts that prove the undeniable advantages of digitalization for all countries. The leaders in the market of IT are revealed, taking into account such indicators as the number of Internet users, convenience/difficulty of access, the availability of analog additions, the developed telecommunications market, which does not exclude the possibility of its further development. It is noted that today they influence the transition of countries from one category to a higher one. In this regard, the classification of countries presented by the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) is relevant. It is based on indicators showing the presence of high technology: the relative level of development of digital operations and GDP per capita, the degree of economic operations’ digitalization. These data make it possible to identify the most developed countries. There are currently no more than six. Results. Taking into account the factors described in the article will contribute to the implementation of the main goal of digitalization penetration into the global space – the achievement of business success in all countries, including Russia. This makes it possible to speak about a new meaning of the concept “globalization” and makes the thesis of “the invisible hand of the market”, i.e. personal interest, relevant again.

The Forms of Tourism Digitalization

Introduction. The article substantiates the relevance of tourism digitalization study. The motives of the tourist market subjects for the use of digital technologies are noted. It is indicated that digitalization is a new form of communication between producers and consumers of tourist services, which becomes a source of competitive advantages of tourist organizations. Theoretical analysis. In addition to the introduction of the concept of “digitalization”, its advantages and possible risks of implementation are discussed. The importance of a new type of employee formation (“digital worker”) is noted, its role in modern organizations is indicated. The importance of economy digitalization in the creation of added value of enterprises in various sectors of the national economy is proved. Empirical analysis. The empirical analysis allows to identify the current forms of tourism digitalization. They include online purchase of tours designed by tour operators, the development of mobile applications useful for the implementation of tourist travel, the digitalization of independent tours by creating so-called schools “Travel for novice tourists”, as well as the development of a single information platform on the Internet for independent tourists. Results. In conclusion, it is noted that in the near future the competitiveness will have those organizations of tourism industry, which will be able to customize their services, thus ensuring a stable flow of customers.

Portfolio Analysis Technologies in the Logistics System

Introduction. The modern functioning of logistics systems, which is characterized by high demands for increasing efficiency, saving resources, reducing the costs of product distribution, confirms the relevance of the competitiveness of enterprises through the use of advanced resource management technologies. Theoretical analysis. The article presents a theoretical analysis of the portfolio method of researching technologies that are used in the implementation of logistics operations and functions in an enterprise, and also describes in detail the stages and features of the construction of matrices of portfolio analysis technology. Scientists’ views on the use of portfolio analysis are summarized, and the advantagesof portfolio analysis of technologies in enterprises integrated into logistics systems are revealed. Results. According to the results of the study, problematic issues of constructing portfolio technology matrices were identified, criteria for technological attractiveness and resource endowment were formulated, which allow to develop effective strategies for improving the competitiveness of enterprises when performing logistic operations and functions.

The Modelling of the Economic Mechanism Development of Modern Russian Economy Innovation Sphere

Introduction. The development of the economic mechanism of modern Russian economy innovation sphere directly affects the development of state economy as a whole. The economic tool «modelling » in the economic mechanism development of the economy innovation sphere can have a positive impact on state economy development. Through the development of this tool concerning the economic mechanism development of the economy innovation sphere, it is assumed that a calculation will be made taking into account the impact of subjects of innovative factors on innovative development to determine the state of development when adjusting these factors. The calculation of innovative development is supposed to identify the optimal state and choose the appropriate strategy on the impact of the constituent factors of development on the economic mechanism development of the economy innovation sphere. Thus, a tool is developed to facilitate the planning and forecasting of the state economy development. Theoretical analysis. Modeling of the economic mechanism development of the economy innovation sphere of the Russian Federation demonstrates the level of the state innovation sphere development at present and is a tool that helps to forecast and plan further development. Empirical analysis. The components of the economic mechanism development of the economy innovation sphere are revealed. Based on the identified components, a model for the economic mechanism development of the economy innovation sphere was formed, as well as statistically, by building a model of panel data, the direct influence of groups of subjects of innovation-forming factors on the economic mechanism development of the Russian economy innovation sphere was proved. Results. The components of the variable model are important in explaining the economic mechanism development of the economy innovation sphere. The process the economic mechanism development of the economy innovation sector depends on the innovation process.

The Peculiarities of Project Management Methods Implementation in the Activities of Tax Authorities

Introduction. The introduction of project management practices in administrations of all levels is one of the key tasks that the state sets before the Executive authorities today. However, the functional structure of state bodies significantly limits the effectiveness of the project approach. There is a need to adapt the methods of corporate project management to the strictly regulated activities of state and local administrations and services. Theoretical analysis. In the last decade, the Federal Tax Service (FTS) of Russia has shown impressive results in the modernization and optimization of its activities based on the introduction of project management principles. However, the application of the project approach in the performance of functions and tasks of regional and local tax authorities has its own characteristics and limitations. Empirical analysis. The study concludes that the classical principles of project management will not be highly effective in the process activities of territorial tax officials due to the rigidity of the traditional approach to change. Results. In the conditions of high uncertainty and constant changes in the tax legislation in the territorial divisions of the Federal Tax Service, it is advisable to apply flexible methods of project management on the basis of the Agile family. Overcoming barriers to the adaptation of Agile technologies to the activities of tax administrations is possible by the improvement of the legal framework and the creation of a methodology for the implementation of project management in the tax authorities of the regional and local level.

Economic Aspects of the Saratov Region Food Industry Export Potential Realization

Introduction. The importance of food industry in the economy of the Saratov region is great, its role due to the influence of various factors is growing. In this regard, there is a task to assess the current state and prospects of food products export from the region. Theoretical analysis. It is associated with the identification of the optimal ratio between domestic consumption, export to other regions and export of food products abroad. Empirical analysis. The contribution of the food industry and crop production to the Saratov region economy is analyzed. The geographical features of food products’ export and import (by Federal districts) are considered.The correlation between export to other Russian regions, export and domestic consumption of certain types of products, especially vegetable oils, flour, cereals and pasta is analyzed. The dynamics of certain types of products’ production is considered in connection with the region’s economy transformation. The role of sanctions policy and import substitution in this transformation is assessed. Results. The advanced development of the agro-industrial complex and the food industry as sectors in which it is relatively easy to form economic ties for the processing of plant raw materials and the production of finished products is shown. The main direction of food products export from the region is the Central Federal district.

Economic and Financial Effects of Specifi c Taxes at the State Level in the United States

Introduction. This study describes states’ government experiences implementing new tax laws on goods with harmful properties. It provides a comparative analysis of new tax revenues in Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Alaska.

Theoretical analysis. This paper explores the unintended consequences of new tax laws on state level in the United States. This article analyzes potential economic, health and fiscal effects based on Pigovian taxes approach. Pigovian economics discourages negative social activity by increasing tax burden associated with consumption without eliminating it or forcing it underground. Accordingly, taxes imposed on harmful commodities are intended to encourage people and businesses to consider the extra social cost when they decide to undertake the taxed item.

Empirical analysis. This paper analyses the new tax laws in Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Alaska and tax revenues on harmful commodities. It provides comparative analysis of different types of taxes and fees in 19 states.

Results. The research shows the negative outcomes of its new tax initiatives –increased addiction rates, a increase level of expenditures on public health, etc. – with potentially positive ones – reduced prison populations, increased tax base, etc. The new tax policy shift will potentially cause a shift in expenditures from law enforcement to public health needs. New taxes laws on will increase state revenues on harmful commodities but also increase expenditures on public health and addiction-related costs.

Features of Сrowdfinance in Innovation Projects

Introduction. Insufficient financing of innovation projects in Russia focuses the attention of researchers on the study of new investment mechanisms and sources of financing innovation, and determines the relevance of determining the prospects for the development of the industry of financing innovation projects, one of whose segments are crowdfunding, which is gaining an exponential growth rate.

Theoretical analysis. The specifics of crowdfunding as an instrument of financing innovations are considered from the point of view of crowd funding as financial, marketing, technological and institutional phenomena.

Empirical analysis. The analysis of the ecosystem structure of crowdfunding in Russia and the characteristics of the crowdfunding, crowdlending and crowdinvesting segments are given. It also presents the key characteristics of the development of crowdfunding as mechanisms for financing innovative projects.

Results. The article develops directions for solving problems of the development of the crowdfunding market to attract funding for innovative projects. To develop new promising channels for long-term private financing of innovative projects using crowd funding, it is necessary to reduce risks and create state institutional conditions for the formation of a crowd funding market.

Definition of Tax Potential of the Saratov Region for Income Effective Planning of the Regional Budget

Introduction. Planning of tax revenues of all levels of budget is necessary for effective management of the country’s economy. The essence of planning tax revenues is to assess the allowable revenue, which will be sufficient to meet the economic objectives of the region. For rational planning of revenues to the budget of the Russian Federation it is important to determine the tax potential of the region.

Theoretical analysis. The regional budget revenues consist of tax and non-tax revenues. Incomes of the Saratov region budget structure for the last five years are dominated by tax revenues, which account for the bulk of the tax on income of private persons, tax on profit of organizations, tax on property of organizations, excise tax, unified tax payable under the simplified system of taxation. Based on the analysis of the formation of tax revenues of the Saratov region, it is possible to calculate the tax potential of the region. This indicator which reflects the total amount of taxable resources in the region is important in planning the revenue side of the budget, especially gratuitous revenues.

Empirical analysis. To obtain a reasonable indicator of the tax potential of the Saratov region, its value for 2013–2017 was calculated by the method of actual revenues and the method of representative tax system. The results of the calculation by different methods differ slightly. The tax potential in the region is used to the maximum extent. At the same time, the reduction of tax arrears and regional benefits contribute to the growth of the level of tax potential.

Results. Taking into account the available information base, the best methods for calculating the tax potential of the Saratov region are the method of actual revenues and the method of representative tax system. The increase in the volume of incoming taxes and fees to the budget of the region is possible due to the expansion of the list of taxes assigned to the regions and municipalities.