Integrated development problems of the oil and gas complex logistics infrastructure

Introduction. The effective operation of industrial production, transport and processing facilities depends directly on the logistics infrastructure. This is confirmed by a significant share of logistics infrastructure costs in the investment programs of vertically integrated companies. Theoretical analysis. A theoretical study of the logistics infrastructure, its current state and prospects for development is carried out, the types of logistics infrastructure and areas of responsibility are analyzed: supply, intra-industry support and sales. Theoretical research methods were used, and the analysis of different types of logistics infrastructure designed for specific purposes at different stages of the life cycle in the supply chains of the investment project was performed. Еmpirical analysis. The possibility of reverse use of logistics infrastructure facilities, i.e., for the supply of oil and gas facilities and the sale of processed products, is analyzed. The concept of logistics infrastructure is specified, which allows to specify their share in investment costs. Results. The approach proposed by the authors will allow to take into account the importance of integrated construction of the logistics infrastructure of the Arctic region of Russia in the foreseeable future, increase the efficiency of investments, and further reduce costs at the stage of operation and elimination of industrial and social facilities.

Some theoretical and methodological directions for improving the support of rural settlements’ municipal budgets

Introduction. Solving the problem of improving the quality and standard of living of the Russian Federation’s rural population is associated with the need to develop and apply scientifically based support for municipal budgets of rural settlements to ensure the gradual transition of municipal budgets to replenishment from internal sources, generally accepted within the framework of the international concept of civic-oriented municipal governance. Theoretical analysis. The article develops theoretical problems of the formation of scientifically grounded support for rural settlements’ municipal budgets in conditions of their low budgetary provision. It reveals and scientifically substantiates the need for the development and application of theoretical and methodological foundations for supporting the municipal budgets of rural settlements for the subsequent transition of rural self-government to the implementation of the civic-oriented municipal governance concept based on internal sources of municipal budgets replenishment. Empirical analysis. Methodological directions of scientifically grounded support of Russian rural settlements’ municipal budgets are being developed. An indicator of the quality and standard of living of the rural population is proposed. It represents the expenditure of rural municipal budgets per capita of the rural population. The proposed indicator was calculated and studied at the level of expenditures of the municipal budgets of rural settlements in macro-regions of the Russian Federation per capita of the macro-regions’ rural population. A significant differentiation of the indicator by macro-regions of the Russian Federation was revealed. A significant differentiation of the proposed indicator’s value in macroregions of the Russian Federation has been revealed. The indicator of the rural municipal budgets expenditure per capita of Russian Federation’s rural settlements has been proposed, substantiated and calculated. The groups of Russian macroregions with the municipal budgets expenditures per capita of the rural population are higher, equal and lower than the indicator for the Russian Federation. Similar procedures were carried out on the basis of an empirical analysis of the rural settlements’ municipal budgets expenditures per capita of the rural population of the Russian constituent entities in macroregions with an agricultural orientation. Results. On the basis of the empirical analysis of indicators, characterizing the provision of the rural population with municipal services recommendations are proposed that can be used in the development of regulations governing the support of Russian rural settlements’ municipal budgets.

Enterprise internal monitoring development as part of the bank lending strategy formation

Introduction. In solving the issue of ensuring the effective implementation of the company’s lending strategy for the purpose of its rational formation, the issues of internal monitoring of enterprises are of particular relevance. Theoretical analysis. The article deals with the theoretical aspects of developing algorithmized tools for the development of a system for monitoring the credit strategy of an enterprise is justified. Empirical analysis. The analysis of the ratio of issued credit loan funds and overdue debt of legal entities of the Russian Federation is carried out, the dynamics of the industries’ debt burden is shown. Results. Methodological approaches to monitoring enterprises in the system of bank lending have been developed. The proposed algorithmized mechanism for monitoring the implementation of the current strategy, which is carried out in two stages. At the same time, at the first stage, an analysis of market and non-market factors affecting the implementation of strategies is carried out. At the second stage, the internal environment of enterprises is analyzed. The practical implementation of the research results suggests the possibility of using a shell-based mechanism for monitoring the credit strategy at specific enterprises.

Influence of COVID-19 on creative industries

Introduction. This study analyzes the impact of the new COVID-19 coronavirus infection on the creative industries in the Russian Federation, as well as finding solutions to support this area in the context of the pandemic. Theoretical analysis. Since the latest imperatives of the current world processes dictate the need for structural changes in the state economic activity, the actual principle of the economic activity organization can be called the creative industries concept development, which include industries related to the creation of a certain cultural or creative product, IT-sphere, fashion and design, advertising and marketing products, as well as folk art and craft. Due to the relevance of the creative industries development, modern research on the theory of creative economy development pays great attention to the study of the specifics of this activity and ways to improve it. The article provides a theoretical analysis of the crisis in the creative industries, as well as a detailed analysis of the opportunities and threats of the crisis. Empirical analysis. Based on the analysis of the activities of companies in the creative industries, the authors of the article identify opportunities for the development of companies in the creative sphere in terms of economic and social efficiency. New trends in the transformation of business processes in various fields (theatre, film industry, music, exhibition and Museum activities) are considered. Results. Based on the analysis, it is concluded that the urgent tasks in the situation of forced quarantine measures are the timely transformation of creative industries with the use of information technologies, the transition to online areas of interaction with consumers, as well as state support for creative industries most affected by the crisis.

Government information policy and the dynamics of federal funding for the dissemination of US research and development results

Introduction. The traditionally high level of government participation in scientific and technical, innovation and implementation and foreign trade activities of the United States presupposes the active nature of federal funding for activities and information policy instruments related to the dissemination of the results of American R&D both in the national economy and in the international market. The study of the dynamics and structure of the distribution of allocations for the dissemination of special scientific and technical information and documentation is an urgent socio-economic problem, reflecting the level of scientific and technological development of the United States and the innovative activity of advanced sectors of the national economy for a long period of time. The theoretical analysis was carried out in the context of organizational and administrative institutions of the federal government (specialized departments), endowed with financial powers, subordinate to the central body generating a unified US information policy strategy for the dissemination of R&D results. An empirical analysis based on US official statistics made it possible to assess the specifics of financing scientific and technical information in the field of R&D by types, categories and departments – domestically for 1965–2019, as well as to calculate changes in the balance of US foreign trade with scientific and technical information and documentation in 2001–2019. Results. The general resulting conclusion is that any innovative information on the results of R&D provides a certain monopoly for a certain period, which gives the industry that created and introduced it, the department and the country as a whole, a certain advantage in the export of a new product. Since the United States has the most powerful national financial and innovation system among all states, with a developed structure, it provides its economic residents and their counterparties with ample opportunities for conducting fundamental and applied research and development and, of course, has an advantage in the production of innovative products with high competitiveness both in the domestic and in the global market, subject to the classic price-quality ratio.

Employment and economic growth in the conditions of COVID-19 pandemics: Cross-country comparisons

Introduction. The factor of a sharp slowdown in economic growth in almost all countries since the beginning of 2020 has been quite atypical. Whereas previously we had seen shocks mainly related to economic processes, this time the “black swan” was a public health emergency – the new coronavirus pandemic COVID-19. A feature of this crisis was the unprecedented measures of states to restrict the movement of citizens, as well as the suspension of the activities of both industrial enterprises and enterprises in the sphere of trade and services. The aim of this work is to make cross-country comparisons of the impact of increased unemployment caused by the COVID-19 pandemic on different countries’ economic growth. Theoretical analysis. The relationship between the actual output gap and potential and cyclical unemployment rates has traditionally been studied according to the well-known law of A. Okun. Okun’s Law can be viewed as a linear algebraic equation for the function of real gross domestic product (GDP). The essence of the law is that with an increase in cyclical unemployment, total output should decrease, since the number of people employed in GDP production falls. Empirical analysis. Cross-country comparisons of economic growth and characteristics of the labor market in Russia, the USA, China, Canada and Germany from 2000 to 2020, including the period of the new coronavirus infection pandemic, were carried out. Results. Based on the analysis of time series of GDP and the unemployment rate, it is shown that, depending on the depth and effectiveness of state support measures for business in terms of maintaining employment, deviations of the actual values of GDP from those calculated in accordance with Okun’s empirical law are observed. The largest and smallest deviations in real GDP changes from the predictions for the first half of 2020 have been recorded in Germany and Canada, respectively.

Priorities and Mechanisms for Managing the Interbranch Structure of the Agri-Food Complex

Introduction. In managing the competitive advantages of the agri-food complex, the study of the structural modernization of the agri-food complex on the basis of taking into account the levels of risks and the uncertainties of the economic situation that determine the possible boundaries of the use of regulatory measures is of particular importance. An interdisciplinary approach to the analysis and prediction of the structure of the complex opens up new possibilities for research, taking into account the relationships and interactions of all its elements. Theoretical analysis. The quality of the economic dynamics of the complex and its compliance with the long-term development goals of the Russian economy are evaluated. Trends in the interbranch structure, and priorities of state support have been revealed. Empirical analysis. The results of import substitution in the agri-food complex have been analyzed. The factors and structure of its growth have been revealed. The interbranch structure of the participation of various stages of its product chains in the production of total value added has been estimated. The stability of the local production systems of the complex has been characterized. Consumption growth is considered as an independent driver of the economic growth of the complex. The influence of the dynamics and structural parameters of investments has been analyzed. Results. It has been proved that structural balance largely determines the competitive stability of the development of the agri-food complex as a diversified system. Based on the interbranch analysis, new directions of development of the structure of the complex have been identified, directions of its state support have been clarified. Priorities of the foreign trade policy of the complex have been determined.

Value Chain Management as Essentials of Pricing Strategy for Digital Marketing Companies

Introduction. Many businesses nowadays struggle to develop an effective pricing strategy that would boost their sales volume and improve profitability. Some of them may overcharge for their products and services, and usually chase customers away with their profit-hungry image. Others may undercharge as they either do not recognize the value they provide to a customer or simply deliver a below-the-standard project/service. Nevertheless, traditional pricing based mainly on the cost of production is a thing of the past as customers’ needs and demands constantly change and what they would like may no longer be expensive to produce. As such, it is important to focus on psychological factors to understand the value customers are looking for and then amplify on those values when determining the right pricing strategy. Theoretical analysis. The theoretical management principles were determined as the patterns of subjects’ behavior for the strategic management planning, value chain management, manufacturing and sale of products and services. The theory of managing a pricing strategy has proposed a number of tools to optimize the integrative framework for profit driven B2B pricing model, which allows developing a value chain management strategy for digital marketing agencies. Methodology. The basic statement of the problem determining strategic pricing methods for digital marketing agencies, depending of various factors is given. Results. During the research the authors explore several pricing strategies for digital marketing agencies and different online services they provide. The purpose of this article is to shift from traditional to strategic pricing methods for digital marketing services, which nowadays require flexibility, critical thinking, agency’s role in the process understanding, the value they provide, and a total scope of work, including time and resources invested in the completion of a project.

Development of Taxation of Income of Individuals in the Russian Federation Based on Foreign Experience

Introduction. The issue of reforming the taxation of personal income has not left the agenda in recent decades. The importance of solving this issue is determined by the high economic and social significance of personal income tax and its impact on the labor market and consumption. Theoretical analysis. The article analyzes the statistics of the Federal Tax Service on income tax on physical incomes in the budget system of the country, identifies and substantiates the problems of income taxation in the Russian Federation. Discussion of results. A study of the characteristics of income taxation in the United States, Norway and Sweden revealed the common features and differences in the principles of constructing a system of income taxation in the studied countries and the Russian Federation. The analysis made it possible to substantiate measures to improve the system of income taxation of the Russian Federation based on foreign experience and evaluate the expected effect of some measures.

Substantiation of the Balanced Approach to the Digitalization Process in the Aspect of Innovative Development of Domestic Enterprises

Introduction. One of the priority tasks for our country is to activate the innovative activity of domestic enterprises. The most important modern tool for increasing the activity of innovative development is digitalization. To achieve high efficiency of digital transformation processes in the context of innovation, it is necessary to determine the most promising option for implementing digitalization processes in order to activate and maintain a high level of efficiency in the development and implementation of innovations at domestic enterprises. Theoretical analysis. Existing theoretical approaches to the concept of digitalization define it as a driver of innovative development. The transition to digital technologies transforms the innovative activity of the enterprise, providing a wide range of opportunities, both by improving the efficiency of processes, and by developing and launching new products or services to the market. While there is a lack of scientific interest in issues complementing the digital transformation of the management system, whereas the concept of balanced digital transformation of production and management systems of the enterprise is not considered that determines the low performance of the initiated change processes of innovation. Empirical analysis. It has been revealed that currently the transition to “digital” is carried out mainly in the production sector. At the same time, there is no relationship between digital technologies used in the management system and the production system, which negatively affects both the effectiveness of current and innovative activities, while research by foreign authors shows an increase in profitability as a result of the synergistic effect of simultaneous digital transformation of the management system and production. Results. A conceptual approach to digitalization of innovative activities of domestic enterprises has been proposed, based on synchronous, dynamic, complementary digital transformation of the production and management spheres. It will ensure the achievement of the goals set.