Management

Indicators of the Regional Systems of Higher Education Efficiency Evaluation

Introduction. The search for effective models of higher education development necessitates the development of approaches and indicators for assessing the activities of regional higher education systems. The aim of the study is to develop methodological foundations and approaches to assessing the effectiveness of regional higher education systems by identifying indicators for a comprehensive assessment of current trends in their development, their implementation of their functions and their socio-economic effectiveness in order to develop recommendations for improving the effectiveness of the higher education system in Russia. Theoretical analysis. The effectiveness of the regional higher education system is evaluated on the basis of its functioning results, which are expressed in the implementation of educational, research and social functions. An urgent vector for the development of this problem is the development of a list of indicators that should, on the one hand, be accessible from available sources and quantitatively measurable, and on the other hand should reflect the contribution of regional higher education systems to regional development and evaluate their effectiveness in the context of involvement in regional development. Empirical analysis. Performance indicators should, accordingly, provide an opportunity to evaluate such results. The system of indicators for assessing the effectiveness of regional higher education systems is presented from the perspective of the functional aspect in terms of input and output resources. Results. The development of methods for assessing the effectiveness of the regional innovation system and the contribution of universities to regional development on the basis of the indicators considered will allow us to study various aspects of regional universities’ activities, creating tools for assessing their potential in promoting regional economic development.

Methodological Tools Formation for Regional Innovative Agrosystems Research

Introduction. In the context of the transition to an export-oriented economy, the innovative development of the agricultural sector is a non-alternative tool for ensuring the state national security. Theoretical analysis. The article discusses the theoretical and methodological aspects of the regional innovative agricultural systems’ formation in the context of the national innovation system concept. The economy’s modern agricultural sector transformation into an innovative agricultural system within the framework of the NIS requires the development of a methodology and tools for researching the regional agricultural systems innovative development. Empirical analysis. Based on the analysis and assessment of the agro-industrial complex innovative development dynamics, a connection was revealed between the intensification of the integration institutional interaction of the innovation process’ subjects and the growth of agribusiness’ innovative activity. Results. Methodological approaches to assessing the effectiveness of regional agricultural systems based on the principles of balanced integration between the state, science and education, agribusiness, taking into account regional needs and spatial heterogeneity, have been developed. A list of key indicators for assessing the innovative potential of regional agricultural systems is proposed. The construction of integrated development indices for regional innovative agricultural systems will allow a typology of regions to be leading and catching up and develop targeted mechanisms to stimulate innovative activity in the agro-industrial complex in the context of a transition to a model of export-oriented agricultural economy.

The Analysis of the Excise Taxes’ Use Concerning Goods Importation into the Territory of the Russian Federation in Terms of the EAEU Membership

Introduction. Excise tax is one of the most important taxes in the Russian tax system, which performs fiscal and regulatory functions. Its features include a limited list of excisable goods for which there is stable demand and consumption that the government is trying to regulate. A special group of goods consists of marked excisable goods: alcohol and tobacco products. Concerning them, disputes most often arise in connection with the peculiarities of their customs clearance. The importance of labeling is determined by the need to control the quality of these types of goods and the legality of their production. Theoretical analysis. The article analyzes the excise taxes levied on the state tax system for certain types of excisable goods imported into the Russian Federation, as well as tax rates on certain types of excisable goods in the Russian Federation and EAEU members. Similar features and differences in the system of excise taxation of the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan, Belarus, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan are revealed. Discussion of results. The study concluded that differences in excise taxation of EAEU member countries lead to imbalances in the development of a common customs and economic space and increase the influence of smuggled products on the excisable goods market. The absence of uniform excise rates in the EAEU member countries complicates the control in the field of taxation of foreign economic activity and negatively affects the integration process.

Integral Methodology for Assessing the Stability of Electrical Networks Companies

Introduction. The article presents the results of the integrated methodology for assessing stability developed by the author, tested at the branches of the Interregional Distribution Network Company of the Center and Volga Region, which differs from the already known methods in terms of characteristics, coefficients and structure. The main indicators of the electric grid company branches’ stability are identified, taking into account the industry priorities. An assessment of 9 branches’ stability was carried out, weaknesses and strengths of their activities were identified. Theoretical analysis. The main approaches to the concept of “company sustainability” are analyzed. Despite the abundance of definitions, common features that characterize a “sustainable enterprise” can be distinguished: positive performance, long-term solvency, successful opposition to external and internal influences, integrity of the enterprise as a system and the strength of internal and external relations, and all this in the long term prospects. Empirical analysis. The methodology for assessing the stability of an electric grid company branch involves the selection of the branch stability main indicators. As a result of evaluating the company’s performance using these indicators, it is advisable to propose an integrated indicator of assessing the stability of IDNCs. Results. As a result of evaluating the branches according to the method developed by the author, one can draw a number of conclusions about the situation, strengths and weaknesses of the branches, improve the management system of the electric power industry, thereby optimizing the use of resources necessary for the sustainable development of the company and the industry as a whole.

Increasing Enterprise Efficiency Through Outsourcing

Introduction. Crisis events in the economy, high competition in the market, annual increase in prices of material resources lead enterprises to seek ways to reduce the cost of products/services in order to increase efficiency. In most cases, when solving the MOB task (“make or buy”), the enterprise gets significant savings and competitive advantages in transferring, mainly non-core functions, to a third-party organization. Theoretical analysis. Outsourcing, as an innovative form of economic and organizational relations that provides profits to enterprises, has been gaining momentum in Western countries and Russian practice for recent decades. The transfer of some enterprise functions to external experts is a recognized trend of the world economy, which allows enterprises, organizations to concentrate on basic processes in order to improve the quality of management. Domestic enterprises mainly outsource accounting, document management, transport/cargo delivery, information and computer support, advertising activities, security issues. Empirical analysis. The analysis of the activity of a large machine-building enterprise in Saratov showed problems related to the need to reduce the cost of production, develop marketing strategies to increase the market share of refrigerating and freezing household appliances. Results. The results of the work are measures to improve the activity of the enterprise, consisting in outsourcing of certain non-core functions of the enterprise, which allowed to achieve economic effect in the form of annual savings and increase of net profit of the company.

Analysis and Forecasting of Management Decisions in Commercial Real Estate Management

Introduction. The problem of managing commercial real estate, in particular shopping and entertainment malls, has a high degree of uncertainty. The external source of this uncertainty is consumer preferences that affect the choice of visiting a shopping and entertainment mall. In addition, high uncertainty is associated with the complexity of forecasting the results of management and business activities. Theoretical analysis. Increasing competition and increasing territorial concentration of commercial real estate makes the information on the current and projected attendance of the property by consumers relevant for effective management of real estate and business activities on the basis of the commercial object visiting. The significance of the consequences of wrong management decisions puts forward the requirement for the development and implementation of quantitative methods of forecasting and management with high accuracy and reliability properties. The basis for forecasting is a model proposed by the authors for assessing the consumer attractiveness of commercial real estate. Еmpirical analysis. The relevance and necessity of the problem of forecasting management decisions in the field of commercial real estate management is revealed. Results. A modified Huff model which is used to predict the attendance of the commercial real estate and consumer appeal is shown. The main feature of the proposed model is its versatility in relation to the type and format of commercial real estate. The introduced convolution Q, describing the quality of the property, is a function of many variables, the set of which and the type of functional dependence is individual for each type of commercial real estate. The model example of sensitivity analysis complex evaluation to changes in the status of private criteria that can serve as the instrumental basis of the decision support system is given. Also, the model example of sensitivity analysis and search for the optimal strategy of economic entities of shopping and entertainment complexes is shown. Screen forms of multi-user support system of making individual management decisions in the software environment RDS (Research of Dynamic Systems) are given.

Features of Structural and Technological Modernization of Industry in the Russian Federation

Introduction. The need for modernization is due to the achievement of the productivity limit within the existing technological order, as well as the systemic crisis of the Russian industry. Theoretical analysis. Based on the semantic analysis of terms, the essential features of the modern stage of modernization transformations were identified: large-scale changes in existing industries under the influence of the “breakthrough” technologies’ use, which will lead to changes in the chains of consumer value creation and the formation of new business models based on platforms; the emergence of new markets, whose members may become counterparties for enterprises of traditional industries; high importance of government initiatives for the implementation of transformations. Modernization beyond industry should affect both state and public institutions. Empirical analysis. Based on the analysis of statistical data, the current state of the Russian industry was assessed. The unevenness of industrial production in the sectoral and regional context was confirmed. On the example of the Sverdlovsk region, it is determined that the regional priority of structural and technological modernization of industry is mechanical engineering. Key areas of machine-building production growth in the region, prospective existing and future markets for the sale of their products, including radio electronics, additive manufacturing, aircraft and shipbuilding, railway technology, space systems, nuclear medicine, photonics, robotics, have been identified. Results. Most of the domestic industrial production corresponds to the third technological order, while developed countries are moving to the sixth. The thesis on the structural degradation of Russian industry, which occurred as a result of the deepening of inefficient specialization in low-tech energy- and resource-intensive industries and the actual loss of certain industries of investment and social importance, was confirmed.

The Statistical Method of Constructing a Forecast for the Real Estate Price Using Heterogeneous Data

Introduction. The article deals with the issues of constructing forecasts in the real estate market using heterogeneous data. Establishing a “fair” price of housing is an urgent task for collateral assigning, for insurance purposes, for determining the investment projects effectiveness, etc. To solve this problem, econometric pricing models are used, which are specified for the entire surveyed population. In case of significant heterogeneity of the surveyed population, the predictions obtained from these  models may contain significant errors. Theoretical analysis. Now, there is a variety of methods and models for the analysis of heterogeneous, spatially distributed data. Population zoning or a variable structure model is used to overcome data heterogeneity. It is connected with a number of problems. An overview of the approaches that implement these methods is given, their advantages and disadvantages are listed. A new method for constructing homogeneity zones, based on the results of the global model estimates building, is proposed to improve the forecast quality. The corresponding algorithm for calculating the local correction factor is described, which makes it possible to correct the global model forecast. Empirical analysis. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in action, a forecast for the real estate price, based on the empirical data of the regional real estate market, was calculated, and an analysis of the forecast results was given. Results. The proposed new method for determining homogeneity zones based on the results of forecasts using the local correction calculation makes it possible to avoid a number of problems arising from the use of other approaches and represents an effective forecasting tool.

Data Mining Methods for Financial Time Series Forecasting

Introduction. Data Mining algorithms enhancement leads to the solution of predictive analytics tasks in more efficient ways. The models ensembles are one of the actively developing areas, especially in those branches where predictive accuracy is more important than the interpretability of the model. Theoretical analysis. The forecasting problem requires careful study of the data set and methods suitable for analysis. It includes the solution of such subtasks as the choice of a forecasting model, the analysis of the forecast accuracy. Models ensembles are used to combine the predictions of several basic models in order to reduce forecasting errors and increase the generalizing ability of the individual models. Conceptual schemes are presented for the basic ensemble methods (bagging, boosting, stacking, blending). Empirical analysis. The practical aspects of forecasting financial time series, implementation of several models ensemble for forecasting problems are explored in the article. Results. To build models ensembles, we developed an application with a web interface that provides the ability to evaluate models with different error metrics, choose a more accurate models ensemble. With the web application, users can select and configure models to form forecasting ensembles, test the resulting models, and visualize the results. Testing of the models ensemble for the analysis of share prices time series is presented.

Mathematical Methods and Instrumental Means of Industrial Identification of Enterprises and Organizations by Economic Activities

Introduction. The task of sectoral identification of enterprises and organizations by type of economic activity is considered, which is understood as the following – to determine its main type of activity and industry affiliation according to the balance sheet or other financial statements of an enterprise. Theoretical analysis. Sectoral identification is required in six areas identified by the authors: checking counterparties (suppliers and contractors), checking conflicting statistics, financial analysis, bankruptcy forecasting, business valuation, and determining the stage of the life cycle. Еmpirical analysis. All necessary calculations and computer modeling were made in the special computer program named The universal cognitive analytics system “Eidos”. It was revealed that according to the balance structure, reduced to a specific type, it is possible to identify the sectoral affiliation of enterprises and organizations with a certainty of 83%, and also to determine the probability of bankruptcy with a certainty of 90%. Knowing the most characteristic balance sheet items, we can identify industry ratios for business valuation. Results. The ranges of balance sheet items characteristic of five industries: information technology and telecommunications, mining, construction, agriculture and chemical production are shown, as well as characteristic ranges of balance sheet items for insolvent and financially sustainable enterprises in the construction industry. The regression equation for estimating the value of the construction enterprises’ business is given, which can be used for rapid assessment as a method of industry coefficients.

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