Economic and Financial Effects of Specifi c Taxes at the State Level in the United States

Introduction. This study describes states’ government experiences implementing new tax laws on goods with harmful properties. It provides a comparative analysis of new tax revenues in Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Alaska.

Theoretical analysis. This paper explores the unintended consequences of new tax laws on state level in the United States. This article analyzes potential economic, health and fiscal effects based on Pigovian taxes approach. Pigovian economics discourages negative social activity by increasing tax burden associated with consumption without eliminating it or forcing it underground. Accordingly, taxes imposed on harmful commodities are intended to encourage people and businesses to consider the extra social cost when they decide to undertake the taxed item.

Empirical analysis. This paper analyses the new tax laws in Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Alaska and tax revenues on harmful commodities. It provides comparative analysis of different types of taxes and fees in 19 states.

Results. The research shows the negative outcomes of its new tax initiatives –increased addiction rates, a increase level of expenditures on public health, etc. – with potentially positive ones – reduced prison populations, increased tax base, etc. The new tax policy shift will potentially cause a shift in expenditures from law enforcement to public health needs. New taxes laws on will increase state revenues on harmful commodities but also increase expenditures on public health and addiction-related costs.

Features of Сrowdfinance in Innovation Projects

Introduction. Insufficient financing of innovation projects in Russia focuses the attention of researchers on the study of new investment mechanisms and sources of financing innovation, and determines the relevance of determining the prospects for the development of the industry of financing innovation projects, one of whose segments are crowdfunding, which is gaining an exponential growth rate.

Theoretical analysis. The specifics of crowdfunding as an instrument of financing innovations are considered from the point of view of crowd funding as financial, marketing, technological and institutional phenomena.

Empirical analysis. The analysis of the ecosystem structure of crowdfunding in Russia and the characteristics of the crowdfunding, crowdlending and crowdinvesting segments are given. It also presents the key characteristics of the development of crowdfunding as mechanisms for financing innovative projects.

Results. The article develops directions for solving problems of the development of the crowdfunding market to attract funding for innovative projects. To develop new promising channels for long-term private financing of innovative projects using crowd funding, it is necessary to reduce risks and create state institutional conditions for the formation of a crowd funding market.

Definition of Tax Potential of the Saratov Region for Income Effective Planning of the Regional Budget

Introduction. Planning of tax revenues of all levels of budget is necessary for effective management of the country’s economy. The essence of planning tax revenues is to assess the allowable revenue, which will be sufficient to meet the economic objectives of the region. For rational planning of revenues to the budget of the Russian Federation it is important to determine the tax potential of the region.

Theoretical analysis. The regional budget revenues consist of tax and non-tax revenues. Incomes of the Saratov region budget structure for the last five years are dominated by tax revenues, which account for the bulk of the tax on income of private persons, tax on profit of organizations, tax on property of organizations, excise tax, unified tax payable under the simplified system of taxation. Based on the analysis of the formation of tax revenues of the Saratov region, it is possible to calculate the tax potential of the region. This indicator which reflects the total amount of taxable resources in the region is important in planning the revenue side of the budget, especially gratuitous revenues.

Empirical analysis. To obtain a reasonable indicator of the tax potential of the Saratov region, its value for 2013–2017 was calculated by the method of actual revenues and the method of representative tax system. The results of the calculation by different methods differ slightly. The tax potential in the region is used to the maximum extent. At the same time, the reduction of tax arrears and regional benefits contribute to the growth of the level of tax potential.

Results. Taking into account the available information base, the best methods for calculating the tax potential of the Saratov region are the method of actual revenues and the method of representative tax system. The increase in the volume of incoming taxes and fees to the budget of the region is possible due to the expansion of the list of taxes assigned to the regions and municipalities.

Improvement of the Composition and Structure of the Board of Directors in Russian Corporations

Introduction. For a long time, the board of directors of Russian corporations had a formal character, manifested in weak interpersonal relations between council members and in a formal approach to performing functions prescribed by Russian law and the Corporate Governance Code. The cause of formalism was the merging of property and management in Russian business, namely, the formation of a model of insider capitalism, as well as the general misunderstanding by the owners of the functional of the board of directors. These processes affected the formation of boards of directors from representatives of majority shareholders and government officials, which does not meet the requirements of the International best practices of corporate governance. The need for effective management, as well as the processes for companies to enter the international market, have become factors in the activation of boards of directors.

Theoretical analysis. In the course of the article, the composition and structure of the boards of directors of domestic companies are analyzed in the dynamics. An analysis is carried out for the presence of independent directors in the boards, their share ratio. The statistical data characterizing the dynamics of the structure of the soviets are also considered: the presence of appropriate committees in them. The analysis is conducted on the correspondence of the current state of the composition and structure of the boards of directors of Russian companies to the requirements of the Corporate Governance Code. Special attention is paid to these characteristics in non-public companies.

Results. The analysis made it possible to draw conclusions about compliance with the necessary requirements for the composition and structure of boards of directors in Russian companies. But the quantitative and structural characteristics of this institution are not sufficient for its full functional. Therefore, the article provides recommendations on the quantitative content of the board of directors, as well as the principles for the formation of committees of the board of directors, based on the need to address certain issues.

Statistical Basis of Management Decisions for Improving Innovation Effectiveness in Solving Higher Education Problems

Introduction. The article presents some results of the collaborate work of the basic chair of the fundamentals of mathematics and informatics of Saratov State University and the basic organization – the Lyceum of Mathematics and Computer studies for the development of administrative decisions for increasing of training efficiency of experts-mathematicians.

Theoretical analysis. It is assumed that the educational problems arising with first-year students are related to the lack of continuity between the levels of education. This can be caused both by the individual characteristics of the students and by school background specifics.

Empirical analysis. To determine the presence of the problem of education “discontinuities”, the results of entry examinations and three exam periods of the first and second year students were subjected to statistical analysis. To reveal its causes, the results of a questioning of the first-year students of the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics of Saratov State University and students of graduation classes of the Lyceum of Mathematics and Computer studies were analyzed by statistical analysis to identify the problems of adaptation of first-year students.

Results. Management decisions and organizational measures taken to eliminate the identified problems associated with the problems of school background are given.

Econometric Modelling of Influence of Factors on GDP of the Post-Soviet Countries

Introduction. The processes proceeding in turbulent economy demand continuous monitoring and the analysis, it is possible to refer to those safely formation of gross domestic product in the Post-Soviet countries. A set of external and internal factors exert impact on this formation of this indicator, it is possible to measure this influence perhaps having resorted to econometric methods.

Theoretical analysis. As a method of identification and measurement of dependence between variables the correlation and regression analysis is used, also in the course of the research we addressed tabular and graphic methods.

Empirical analysis. The carried-out analysis of reaction of GDP on political and socio-economic factors, allows us to draw a number of conclusions: first, it is possible to state coinciding reaction of economy of the considered countries, on the crisis situations caused by political decisions (collapse of the USSR) or economic factors (world crises of 1998 and 2009); secondly, drift of set of factors of the Post-Soviet countries exerting impact on GDP (per capita) is observed; thirdly, the more time passes from the beginning of market reforms, the values of macroeconomic indicators of the countries which entered the European Union differ from other Post-Soviet countries stronger; fourthly, in all four time slices, agriculture makes the constraining impact on economic growth, and the farther from 1991, the influence of such factor as the index of human potential is shown stronger that indirectly indicates preparation for transition to digital economy.

Results. Econometric modeling of difficult economic systems, in the conditions of turbulent economy is rather difficult task and it is necessary to approach it with extra care, considering all features of the Post-Soviet countries. In the research we made an attempt to create such econometric models, the received results can serve as a starting point in further researches, and the revealed regularities make a certain contribution to the theory of transitional economies.

The Mechanism of Formation of Labor Motivation of Employees

Introduction. The system of motivation of employees, based on the system of personnel management and organizational culture needs to involve personnel potential of the enterprises in the decision of key problems of development of economy and society. In the context of modernization of production and the need to expand the practice of innovative projects increases the importance of creating an established mechanism of formation of labor motivation of workers in enterprises.

Theoretical analysis. The purpose of the paper is the identification of the factors that affect the labor motivation of workers in modern conditions most. In the study of the formation of labor motivation factor analysis was applied. Factor analysis as a method of research allows to determine the relationship and interdependence of the elements of the personnel management system with the production management system in the enterprise in terms of more complete involvement of employees.

Result. The article presents the mechanism of formation of labor motivation of employees of the enterprise as a factor of increase of competitiveness of the enterprise. The duality of perception of the motivation system by the employee and the enterprise is manifested in different attitudes to the motives and incentives of work, evaluation and results of work, values of organizational culture. The duality of perception is taken into account in the author’s mechanism of formation of labor motivation of personnel. Conclusion. Joint development allows to increase the competitiveness of the enterprise and labor productivity.

Cluster Approach in the Development of the Service Sector: The Regional Dimension

Introduction. Nowadays, clusters in the service sector formation becomes one of the characteristics of the Russian economy region development. In accordance with The Federal Aim Program for the period from 2011 to 2018, the Saratov region is not among the federal subjects which were included in the program of federal funding assistance to promote the creation of clusters in the service sector. Despite this, we consider the possibility to discover such cluster (emerging cluster or developed one) in the territory of the Saratov region. Theoretical analysis. The “complex” and “cluster” concepts have been investigated at theory chapter of this article. We make critique of the authors who have being confused these two different concepts. Also, we recommend that substitution and the same identification of these two concepts should not be allowed. In addition, there is the clusters in the service sector classification according to the core presence and the localized connection in this article. Empirical analysis. The article presents analysis of the Khvalynsk cluster in the service sector formation and the perspectives of its development. It have been proved that the Khvalynsk cluster is a nuclear- product one. Khvalynsk ski resort can be considered as the core of this cluster. However, Khvalynsk district possesses all the requisites and characteristics to turn from the product cluster into the territorial cluster, based on two cores, the winter cluster and the summer one. A set of measures to promote the Khvalynsk cluster in the service sector has been proposed in the article. Among these measures are the following ones: unique brand creation; the Khvalynsk district events as an instrument for promotion, Internet technologies application; transport infrastructure development. Results. The implementation of the proposed measures would be contribute to the realization of the potential of the Khvalynsk district as well as the creation of all-seasons cluster with the winter core (Khvalynsk Ski Resort) and the summer core (the complex of excursion and beach recreation facilities).

Spatial Panel Analysis of Fertility and Life Expectancy in Russia

Introduction. Spatial aspects of most important demographic indicators (fertility and mortality) need further studies. The purpose of this work is to assess the impact of spatial effects and external factors on the level and dynamics of the total fertility rate and life expectancy in European Russia. Theoretical analysis. Total fertility rate and male/female life expectancy made use of depended variables. Three variants of spatial weight matrices were chosen: inverted weights matrixes (γ = 1 and γ = 2) and gravity economic weights matrix (with GRP as economic indicator). Empirical analysis. The analysis based on the panel data for 55 Russian regions in 2004–2015 (660 observations). The hypothesis of available of spatial lag verified through Moran’s I. Three empiric models estimated and compared: spatial autoregression model, model with exogenous variables and spatial Durbin model. Results. This study proved the existence of spatial effects for both dependent variables. The best results showed herewith fixed effect models with inverted weights matrix. Spatial Durbin models (with relative capacity of ambulances as independed variable) has optimal level of log-likelihood.

The Rating Method of Complex Socio-Economic Development of Municipalities in Russian Regions

Introduction. Municipalities of the Russian Federation as well as Russian regions face the socio-economic development inequality at present. The study of the socio-economic situation at the level of municipalities and the complex socio-economic development rating estimation meets the needs of local governments. Theoretical analysis. The complex municipal socio-economic development rating method has been developed in the research at comparison of the main approaches to socio-economic territories’ ratings. The main methods of economic rating of the territories were analyzed and advantages and deficiencies of each were defined. The use of the integrated rating assessment method was substantiated in the article. Empirical analysis. The method of complex rating evalution has been proposed in the research. The proposed method Управление 313 is based on private ratings, which are estimated by the relative indicators that characterize economic development, investment activity, social sphere development and the standard of living of the population. Results. The approbation results of the offered method are presented. Private ratings of socio-economic development of municipal areas in the Saratov region were calculated and an integral rating of complex socio-economic development of these municipalities in 2017 was estimated. Discussion of the achieved results is presented.