The place of the President of the Russian Federation in the constitutional system of public authority (In the light of the 2020 constitutional reform)

Introduction. The constitutional and legal characteristic of the status of any body begins with identifi cation of its place in the system of power. It is this element that is permanently (continuously, incessantly) in the focus of the study of presidential power. Theoretical analysis. It is noted that the next constitutional reform of the Russian statehood is determined by a certain stage in the transformation of the presidential power, namely its modernization, constitutionalization and, ultimately, institutionalization. Empirical analysis. The practice of constitutional reform, conditioned by the transformation of the presidential power, is analyzed, and its new periodization is proposed on this basis. It has been proved that the content of the 2020 constitutional amendment is due to the constitutionalization of presidential powers in the sphere of public authority. At the current stage of the institutionalization of the presidential power, a proposal has been formulated to improve its legal regulation as a leading entity that ensures the unity of the system of public authorities. Results. The author concludes that the modern legal regime of public power is determined by the central place of the President of the Russian Federation in its system, which requires further constitutional and value regulation.

Transformation of the Classical University in the National Research University: a Regional Perspective

In modern conditions of the economy one of the most promising ways of increasing the efficiency of the economic system is the creation of innovative socio-economic structures. Institutional forms of the organization of such structures are national research universities. Theoretical analysis. The article discusses the process of transforming traditional universities in national research universities. This is, firstly, a consequence of disequilibrium and instability of the modern world, and secondly, the result of constant change and chaos in the natural, social, economic and other systems, and thirdly, the orientation of the new economy on knowledge and innovation. The paper investigates the change of roles of universities: from traditional (educational and scientific activities) to the new (commercialization of research results), as well as the changing role of universities in economic development. Discussion of results. On the example of the restructuring of the regional university to a national research university revealed the fundamental position of the regional university in the community, making it a key element in the future of innovation, creating new jobs, sustainable development and economic growth of the region as a whole.


Введение. В современных условиях развитие рынка труда тесно связано с функционированием институциональной среды, представляющей собой структуру, определяющую связи между элементами. Влияние институциональной матрицы на рынок труда велико, специфика развития российского рынка труда трансформирует институциональную матрицу. Теоретический анализ. Исторически складывающиеся устойчивые способы взаимодействия людей между собой в обществах, в том числе на рынке труда, обеспечивают выживание обществ, их целостность, а также непрерывность хозяйственной и политической деятельности социальных субъектов. Трансформация институциональной матрицы имеет свою специфику в России в связи с трансформацией самого рынка труда. Эмпирический анализ. Выявлено, что трансформация институциональной матрицы в России связана с глобализацией, информатизацией социально-трудовых отношений и самого рынка труда. Результаты. Институциональная матрица рынка труда не структурируется с учетом иерархичности, связей и форм рынка труда. Влияние информатизации и глобализации экономики позволя- ет развиваться институтам рынка труда на разных уровнях, в разных пространственных формах, и это также сказывается на структуре институциональной матрицы.

Institutional Тransformation of the Underground Economy

Introduction. The underground economy as an economic system is investigated in the article. According to some estimates, the underground economy volume in Russia amounts to 46% of GDP. The purpose of a scientific article is to study the institutional mechanism of transformation of the underground economy system.

Theoretical analysis. The author explores the systemic signs of the underground economy, among which there are: integrity, openness, adaptability, reproducibility, structure, and hierarchy. The structure of the underground economy, including three sectors: socially dangerous (criminal) forms of the underground economy; various forms of opportunistic behavior of economic agents and socio-benign forms of underground activities (e.g., home economy), is examined. The main and derivative contradictions of underground economy are revealed. The institutional mechanism of transformation of the underground economy is studied; its options and contradictions are considered. The author analyzed two directions of transformation of the underground economy: restriction (liquidation) of socially dangerous forms and legalization (legitimisation) the most «healthy» elements.

The author makes a conclusion about the necessity of state strategy of institutional transformation of the underground economy. The principles and objectives of institutionalization of the underground economy system in Russia at the present stage are defined.