Governance and the Constitutional Process: Problems of Interaction and Mutual Influence

The form of government as one of the three characteristics of the structure of the state, determined by the method of formation of the public authorities. The classic formula defines a republic as a form of government in which the supreme authorities elected or formed a national representative institution. Depending on the procedure of formation of executive power and the place of the President (Head of State) in the government distinguished presidential, parliamentary and semi-presidential republic, in which the law or in fact the president is always a chief executive or a part of it. At the same time the fundamental principles governing the system of state power and the place of its president, is the principle of separation of powers and independence of authorities (Art. 10 The Constitution of the Russian Federation), as well as the unity of state power (Pt. 3 of Art. 5 The Constitution of the Russian Federation). Methods. The methodological basis of research supports internally interconnected complex methods of knowledge: system-structural, functional, logical, historical. The basic general legal methods are comparative legal and formal-legal, allowing the author to explore the legal basis of the formal and the actual form of government in Russia, comparing the attributes of the Parliamentary, presidential and semi-presidential republic. Results. It is stated that at the present stage of development of the Russian state needs to shift from sverhprezidentskoy to parliamentary form of government with the relevant constitutional changes in law and practice.

Moral and Ethical Parliamentary Deputy`S Image as the Subject of Legal Regulation

Introduction. The article analyzes the legal aspects of moral and ethical image and behavior of parliamentary deputy. Object. The main object of the paper is to study the legal nature and mechanism of implementation of the Rules of parliamentary ethics, as well as responsibility for the violation of moral norms by deputies. Results. The authors analyzed the legislative acts providing the basics of moral and ethical deputy`s image and regulating the ethical behavior of parliamentarians and their responsibility for the violation the law. It was revealed the Russian legislation contains many unresolved issues in the regulation of parliamentary deputy’s behavior. The provisions of the draft Code of Parliamentary Ethics were considered. The normative and obligatory nature of the document was ascertained. The authors proved that the condition obliged the deputies to keep the moral and ethical standards both during the service hours and off duty should be included in the Code. Conclusion. Тhe authors conclude that the Rules of parliamentary ethics should be obligatory. The legal provisions should have the broad interpretation implying the regulation of the behavior of deputies both at the service and off duty. The Code of Parliamentary Ethics should contain a wide and clearly-defined list of sanctions including deprivation of the deputy`s voting right at the parliamentary meetings for a certain period, fines, and deprivation of parliamentary mandate in cases of rough and systematic violations the law.