огнестрельное оружие ограниченного поражения

Firearms of Limited Damage on the Basis of the Tula Tokarev (TT) Pistol and Features of the Deposition of Shot Products on Obstructions of Non-biological Origin when Fired from Close Range

Introduction. One of the types of limited-fire barreled weapons (LLW) is the limited liability company created at the manufacturing enterprises of Russia’s limited liability company on the basis of models and models of short-barreled combat firearms (pistols and revolvers), by introducing into the design a sample of short-barreled combat firearms of the factory making changes made by legal replacement of its trunk under a regular cartridge on the trunk (imitator of the trunk) under the cartridge of a traumatic action, or adaptation trunk at regular cartridge for firing a cartridge traumatic preserving other original parts and components (shutter-casing frame of the trigger) of the arms of the sample, with the subsequent certification of the arms as a new model LLW. To models LLW, designed and produced in Russia in this way, it is possible to attribute and OOOP on the basis of a combat rifled short-barreled firearm – a pistol of the Tokarev design of the sample 1930/1933. (“TT – Tula Tokarev”) of caliber 7,62 mm (LLW on the basis of a pistol TT). In the current literature there is practically no data on the structural features of the trunks or imitators of the trunks of the LLW on the basis of the TT pistol and on the morphological features of the traces of the shot and the limiting distances in the detection of the traces of a shot from it on non-biological (tissue) barriers, as a result of which experiments were undertaken to establish the distance of detection of traces of a shot from the barrel of the LLW on the basis of the TT gun, and the study of the patterns of deposition of the shot products on the barrier, depending on t structural features of the trunk of LLW based on the TT gun and other factors (used regular traumatic cartridge). Methods of research. Experimental part. In the course of the work, certain structural features of the trunks of various models of LLW were built on the basis of the TT pistol (MP-81 pistol and the Leader-M pistol), after which the standard models of traumatic action of the corresponding caliber were fired from experimental models tissue targets from various distances from the muzzle of the trunk (or imitator of the trunk) of the weapon to the surface of the target (from 5 to 50 cm) and with the relatively tight contact of the muzzle of the barrel of the weapon with the outside The target is the target. Results of the study. The dependence of the picture of the deposition of the shot products (shot soot and unburned or half-burned particles of gunpowder) on the tissue barrier from the caliber and the design features of the barrel (imitator of the barrel) of the LLW models on the basis of the TT gun with shots from a close distance. Discussion of results. The possibility of producing differential diagnostic studies of gunshot injuries on fabric barriers formed during shots from individual models of LLW based on the TT pistol, depending on the caliber of the cartridge and the structural features of the barrel (imitator of the barrel), with the establishment of a close shot distance in the case of using or using this type weapons, allowing to distinguish them on the basis of these damages. The need to continue research work on the study of structural features of the trunks of other models of LLW based on the TT pistol (pistol “VPO-501 PS – Leader” under the cartridge of the traumatic action 10x32T, equipped with two rubber bullets, pistol TT-T under patron of the traumatic action 10x28T) and especially the formation of gunshot injuries on the fabric barriers for shots from these weapons models.

Marks on Spent Cartridges Cartridge 18х45Т when Shooting from a Firearm Limited Destruction

Introduction. The urgency of the problem of the use of weapons of self-defense lies in its wide distribution, frequent cases of its application, the consequences of which are serious injuries (in some cases fatal), as well as the lack of complete data on the characteristics of various types of weapons of self-defense, necessary forensic experts, in the special scientific literature. Firearm self-defense, namely, long allowed to keep at home for security of their property and their homes. Other weapons of self-defense to the rightful owner is allowed to carry and use. When you use self-defense weapons for protection against attack, does not give the possibility of causing a serious or especially serious harm to health. Practice has shown that a self-defense weapon is used not only as a means of protection, but also as a means of attack. Experimental part. The article presents data of experimental research on the production of a trace pattern on the sleeve Chuck 18х45Т when shooting a firearm limited destruction. For experimental shooting, we used two models of this weapon, namely: «OSA PB-4-1» and « Strazhnik MP-461». The traces are studied visually and using a comparative microscope «LEICA». Discussion of results. As a result of experiments on the sleeve Chuck 18х45Т were found traces of firearms limited destruction «OSA PB 4-1» and «Strazhnik MP-461». This trail can be carried out to determine the model of the weapon and specific instances of weapons. On the body shells of many of the patrons were quite rude traces of the production mechanisms that hindered the identification process. The presence of a larger number of marks on cartridge cases fired in the gun «Strazhnik MP-461», unlike a pistol «OSA PB 4-1», apparently due to the fact that it was developed after the approval of the forensic requirements forensic science center of the MIA of Russia for service and civilian weapons and trace the picture of the gun on the shell casings more consistent with them. Conclusions. In accordance with criminalistic requirements on spent cartridges from the cartridges to the civil weapon has to be a trail suitable to identify weapons. Design and materials the cartridge cases of ammunition for firearms limited destruction provide when shooting the formation and preservation of a trace suitable for weapons identification. Traces of weapons of limited destruction in spent cartridges easily allow you to set group ownership of weapons. The main problems in the identification of weapons of limited destruction at the marks on spent cartridges, associated with rough handling of ammo in the factory, leaving traces of the production mechanisms that block the display of individual signs of weapons. Control shooting weapons of limited destruction, similar to shooting rifled guns, will improve control over the circulation and use of these weapons.


Введение. Актуальность темы определяется необходимостью исследования механических повреждений на частях и деталях кузовов автомобилей, возникающих при каждом неправомерном использовании огнестрельного оружия ограниченного поражения. Методика исследования. Экспериментальная часть. Рассмотрены морфологические признаки повреждений на преградах из металла (на примере металлических деталей кузовов автомобилей, имеющих многослойное лакокрасочное покрытие), образованных при выстрелах из огнестрельного оружия ограниченного поражения эластичными поражающими элементами. Представлены особенности экспертного исследования указанных повреждений с описанием примененных методов и экспериментов. Приводятся примеры из экспертной практики Северо-Западного регионального центра судебной экспертизы Министерства юстиции Российской Федерации (СЗРЦСЭ МЮ РФ). Обсуждение результатов. Практические рекомендации. Показана возможность диагностирования повреждений металлических деталей кузовов автомобилей, образованных эластичными поражающими элементами (снарядами). Обоснована целесообразность формирования в экспертно-криминалистических подразделениях коллекций огнестрельных повреждений металлических деталей кузовов автомобилей