инновации

Competence Approach as the Basis for Entrepreneurial Universities Development in the National Innovation System

Introduction. The Integration of Russian entrepreneurial universities into the knowledge geo-economic space requires the universities and faculty competencies formation in the field of entrepreneurial activity. Theoretical analysis. The works of domestic and foreign scientists and practitioners in the field of educational sphere entrepreneurship theories are studied, theoretical approaches to entrepreneurial University profile formation are considered, the basis of which is determined by the faculty. Empirical analysis. The author’s version of the Russian Entrepreneurial University formation concept is presented; principles defining the vector of its strategic development: consumer orientation, strong leader, collegiality, uniqueness, continuous development, strong control, diversification of activities are formulated and characterized. Results. The author’s approach to the formation of a theoretical competence model in an entrepreneurial university has been developed, the forms of entrepreneurial activity of a modern Russian university to generate economic results have been defined, general professional competencies of teachers and universities functioning in a global environment have been formulated.

The Specifics of the Transaction Costs in Line with the Formation of the Innovation Economy

Introduction. In the heart of the analysis of this article are problems of innovation economy that most clearly characterizes the existence of transaction costs. Over time, the structure of the transaction costs has evolved: in the information economy occupy a significant proportion of the costs of searching for information and costs of measurement in the knowledge economy is gradually gaining weight the costs of negotiating and concluding contracts. With the last quarter of the twentieth century, a particularly important place in the system of transaction costs took the cost of specification and the protection of property rights, as well as the cost of training and retraining of personnel, satisfying the needs of innovation. Theoretical analysis. Of the total transaction cost economic agents depends on their competitiveness in domestic and international markets, because lower costs enable innovative enterprises to carry out their activities efficiently, constantly modifying the escaping product. This gives the opportunity to occupy a privileged position compared with other companies who are forced to spend a large part of their profits not on improving technologies and to cover transaction costs. Therefore, it is important to not only the theoretical substantiation of the need to address the issue of transaction costs, but also offer practical ways to track the dynamics of this kind costs to reduce them. Results. Reviewed by transaction costs accompanying the interaction of economic actors in the transition of the Russian economy on an innovative path, as well as factors which complicates the measurement of transaction costs. Identified obstacles to the emergence of an innovative economy in our country. Proposed a series of measures to effectively reduce the transaction costs.

МОДЕЛИ ИННОВАЦИОННОГО РОСТА ЭКОНОМИКИ

Введение. В современной экономике, когда на первый план по своей актуальности выходят вопросы формирования ее эффективной структуры, обеспечения устойчивого роста и развития, очевидна потребность в критическом разборе моделей эконо- мического роста и всестороннем анализе его факторов. Теоретический анализ. В статье рассматриваются как базовые модели экономического роста, так и новые модели, в которых движущим фактором экономического роста выступают иннова- ции, являющиеся результатом производства такого специфи- ческого сектора современной экономики, как сектор научных исследований и разработок. Обсуждается вопрос взаимосвязи научного, материаль но-вещественного и кадрового потенциалов современной экономики, представляющейся важным фактором ее инновационного развития. Заключение. Отражая сущность общественного производства в динамике, экономический рост на современной фазе развития имеет своим главным фактором инновации, являющиеся продуктом и результатом интеграции интеллектуального и материально-вещественного капитала. Данный факт подтверждается существующими современными моделями экономического роста, устанавливающими функциональную зависимость между ростом производства и научно-техническим прогрессом.

ПРИМЕНЕНИЕ МУЛЬТИПЛИКАТИВНЫХ ЗАВИСИМОСТЕЙ В АНАЛИЗЕ ВКЛАДА УНИВЕРСИТЕТА В ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОЕ РАЗВИТИЕ РЕГИОНА

Введение. Определение вклада университета в экономическое развитие региона необходимо для стимулирования инноваци- онной деятельности, реализуемой университетами, а также для осуществления государственного регулирования деятельности университетов, что требует более глубокого анализа иннова- ционной активности региональных университетов. Развитие инновационной экономики и постоянный мониторинг инноваци- онной активности региональных организаций требует комплекс- ного подхода, применения математических и инструментальных средств анализа. Методы. В статье предложен комплексный подход к решению проблемы оценивания вклада университетов в экономическое развитие региона. Выполнен анализ связи до- ходов университета с его ресурсной базой и построена мульти- пликативная модель зависимости от формирующих эти доходы показателей. Предметом исследования являются индикаторные и функциональные модели, позволяющие оценить вклад уни- верситетов в региональное инновационное развитие. Разрабо- тан экономико-математический инструментарий для анализа и оценивания вклада университета в экономическое развитие региона. Результаты. Проведены вычислительные экспери- менты по данным Росстата на примере Астраханской области. Рассмотрены важные показатели деятельности вузов, произве- дено структурное и кластерное деление показателей. Выявлены зависимости результативного показателя (доходы вузов) от фор- мирующих их факторов. Рекомендации могут применяться для рационализации финансирования инноваций, способствующих повышению качества экономического развития регионов за счет влияния университетов.

Factors Affecting the Innovative Development of the Region

Introduction. The problems of determining the composition of the factors influencing the innovative development of the region, the methodologies for measuring this influence and the development of tools for its evaluation are relevant in the context of developing potential mechanisms for stimulating regional innovation activity in modern conditions. Theoretical analysis. To study the sources of the difference in the level of innovative development in the region, an analysis of the regional factors affecting it is carried out and the directions for studying these factors are determined. Empirical analysis. The mechanism of influence of regional factors on the innovative development of the region, such as R&D staff, the industrial specifics of the region, urbanization, the sectoral structure of the economy, the structure and quality of human capital, research institutes, financial resources, the attractiveness of the region in terms of a set of living conditions business, as well as the interaction of the actors of the innovation system, the “innovation environment” and partnerships. Results. Evaluation of the effectiveness of innovative development requires the development of special indicators and indicators, a system of quantitative and qualitative indicators that characterize innovation development, and the approaches presented to the selection of factors of influence on the innovative development of the region can be used as a basis for further analysis and development of models for assessing the effectiveness of regional innovation development.

Review of Modern Tools for Innovative Development Impact Assessment

Introduction. The problem of evaluating the performance of universities is exacerbated when it is required to quantify the efficiency of universities. To date, the search for methods of integrated assessment of the contribution of universities to the development
of regional innovation systems based on the relevant scorecard. Theoretical analysis. The basis of the technique of the contribution of universities in the evaluation of innovative development of the regions should be correctly selected scorecard constructed in such a way that they yield to quantify and were directed to assess the performance of universities on the location of the regions, it is important that considerations of accuracy and reliability of the assessment made. Empirical аnalysis. Based on the initial analysis of basic and specific parameters of 15 modern tools to assess the development of innovative techniques highlighted elements relevant for the construction the model of university’s impact assessment to innovative development. Results. The analysis outlined the possible elements for the construction of model of the university’s impact assessment. Regional innovation development: the system of indicators used to quantify the main innovation trends. Relevant objectives of the study is also the most common form of organization as large-scale evaluation of the analytical research method and index ranking of selected objects of study.

Formation and Development of Innovative Systems of the EAEC Clustering Based Economy

Introduction. In modern conditions, determine the dynamics of innovation for economic growth and the place that occupied the country and the various unions in the global community. On the implementation of tasks to ensure the technical and technological modernization of the economies of the Eurasian Economic Union directed the formation of innovative systems based on the cluster approach.

Theoretical analysis. The cluster approach allows the use of the capacities of all countries-participants of the Eurasian Economic Union in the innovation process and the translation of their economies on the path of innovative development.

Discussion of results. The required level of interaction between members of the cluster can be achieved through the organization able to generate, transmit and coordinate innovation across the designated areas. As an organization at supranational level are encouraged to use high technology center and at the meso level is necessary to create a structure that will work with the high-tech center. With regard to the infrastructure of the Saratov region such as the organization proposed the establishment in the form of a municipal enterprise under the administration of the city of regional technological Chamber, which will promote the development of innovation systems of the countriesparticipants of the Eurasian Economic Union.

Principles of Project Investment Method of Innovation Activity

Introduction. At present, the development of a modern economy of the country is impossible without investing in innovation. The role of innovation in the economy increases every day, and one investment project method and the basic methods of investment, which will help Russia to overcome all the new frontiers of economic development. Theoretical analysis. The article deals with the analysis and design method of investing innovation and detail all the principles of the method. Result. Based on the different perspectives of the authors about the project method and its investment principles identified strengths and weaknesses of this method. According to the results of the research project method investment innovation were identified strengths of this method and can say with full confidence that the use of the design method of investing in the Russian Federation will promote the growth of innovative activity in the country and boosting the economy of the country as a whole.

International Science and Technology Cooperation of the Republic of Korea

Introduction. Further successful development of the Russian regions should be based on the strategy of modernization. Identification of the main problems of economic development of regions, especially investment, should be an important stage in the construction of this strategy. The methodology and results of the study is analysis of the extent and dynamics of indicators of investment activity in the regions, as well as the assessment of the level and quality of the use of the most important elements of their reproductive capacity required in determining the degree of implementation of the strategy of modernization. Theoretical analysis. The process for determining the effectiveness of investment activity at the regional level offered, and the rating of regions of the Russian Federation on key indicators of return on investment is made. Discussion of the results. The study found that some regions, occupying relatively high positions in the main macroeconomic indicators of gross product, have a number of problems in its investment development. Obstacle to the modernization of the economy of the Russian regions is their under- investment. As a guide the long-term development must be put as a goal to achieve and exceed the national average values. Also some measures the effective implementation of the reproductive potential of the regions offered.

The Role of Public Authorities in the Organization of Innovative Activity in the Saratov Region

Introduction. The tactical objective of the authorities in the field of innovation is the formation of a favorable environment, as «umbrella» over innovation. Theoretical analysis. The article analyzes the activities of executive authorities in the Saratov region, responsible for taking initiatives in innovation, and algorithmic activities of the government of the Saratov region on the creation of favourable innovation climate and innovation infrastructure. Empirical analysis. The mechanisms of influence of the Ministry of industry and energy of the Saratov region, the Ministry of economic development and investment policy, regional Venture Fund and Business incubator for innovative activity in the region analyzed. Discussion of the results. There is support of key state agencies aimed at stimulating innovation activity, commercialization of new inventions, their introduction into production in the Saratov region. Powerful university complex with regional bodies has a direct impact on the development of innovative activities in the region. However, weak industry, the lack of competitive enterprises in a modern technological basis, the bankruptcy of many industrial enterprises, the burden of excessive taxes, high tariffs, lack of investment programs reinforce is negative trends. It requires the review of all innovation, investment and industrial policy in the Saratov region, its adjustment towards the creation of favorable conditions for development of innovative activity.

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