государственная поддержка

Effect evaluation of the industrial policy project instruments application in the regions

Introduction. This study is devoted to the analysis of industrial policy project instruments implemented by the Russian Industrial Development Fund, from the standpoint of assessing their impact on the systemic results of the industrial development of Russian regions. Theoretical analysis. The industrial sector of the economy has historically played a key role in the socio-economic development of Russia. Given the backbone role of industry in the country’s economy, the issues of state support for industrial development are traditionally the most important on the agenda of the state’s economic policy. Established in 2014, over the past period, the Fund has demonstrated the fl exibility and adaptability of its programs to changing conditions, has provided its customers with convenient tools for concessional lending for technological modernization projects, and, in general, has become the most popular instrument of industrial policy. At the same time, the question of the strategic eff ectiveness of the Fund’s activities as a systemic institution of industrial policy, solving not only local tasks of supporting modernization projects and creating new industries, but also the tasks of industrial development and growth in general, remains open. Empirical analysis. Given that the problem of industrial development is ultimately localized at the level of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, in this study, based on the methods of regression analysis, an assessment has been made of the impact of the Fund’s activities on the development of the manufacturing sector in the regions of Russia. The work has assessed the impact of projects implemented within the framework of the Fund’s programs on the indicators of the production index and the volume of shipment of goods, services on their own in the manufacturing industry of the region by groups of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, depending on the level of the average annual cost of investment projects implemented with the participation of the Industrial Development Fund. Results.The analysis has showed that the Fund’s current tools have a positive eff ect on the systemic growth and development of industry only up to a certain level of intensity of their use in regions with an average and low level of industrial development. As for industrialized regions, the results obtained here from the standpoint of systemic eff ects of accelerated industrial development are not obvious.

Prospects of Venture Investment Development in Russia

Introduction. At the Russian economy’s transition to innovative development, the question of its investment mechanism is very important. Venture investment is most promising in this case. For Russia, venture investment is a rather new tool and, therefore, market mechanisms are introduced with great difficulties. Tasks and methods. To observe the current situation and the causes thereof; to detect the existence of a link between innovative development and the usage of the venture investment mechanism. Theoretical methods (analysis, synthesis, modeling, logical and system approaches, deduction, and induction) and empirical methods (observation, measurement, and comparison) were used. Results: the causes of the slow introduction of venture investment into the Russian economy were recognized; an idea of strengthening the links between innovative development and market investment mechanisms was developed. In particular, a conclusion was made that using venture investment would allow implementing developer projects as well as innovative ones. Such investments would allow companies to develop much quicker. It has impact on the regional and national development, on the increase of well-being, and on the unemployment rate decrease. Conclusion. Thus, the use of venture funds would allow turning to the innovative model of development, but the state support is necessary at the early stages of venture financing. For increasing the Russian economy’s competitiveness at this stage, it is recommended to address venture investments to a limited number of critical technologies.

Regional Aspects of the State Support of Farms

The farming has the economic importance for development of rural territories therefore within an operating legal framework their priority for assistance of employment and growth of the income of country people, and also a role is fixed in preservation of a rural way of life of the population. Theoretical analysis. By state program edition for 2007–2012 it is defined that improvement of their resource providing, improvement of production infrastructure and improvement of sale of production, social arrangement of farms and others had to become the important directions of development of K(F)H. However during implementation of the program its shortcomings were shown, some vital issues didn’t find the reflection or got public and scientific approval. Today the state policy began to participate more actively in formation of agrarian infrastructure, business development in the village. The greatest recognition was gained by state support on reduction in cost of credit resources that, however doesn’t increase efficiency of use of budgetary funds and doesn’t attract forward development of farming. The called measures don’t create favorable conditions for reproduction of means as the unprofitable condition of many farms doesn’t allow them to use means of state support. Operating measures of direct state support assist in the majority to development of financial structures and small part of economically strong farms. Results. In agriculture many scientists connect economic growth with direct support of production which under laws of the WTO has the right to life only in a certain size, i.e. restructuring of measures of a yellow basket is necessary. To provide expanded reproduction of material resources, according to authors, it is necessary to coordinate existing standards of subsidies to labor productivity indicators in farms. Such standards will promote more effective use of means of support, will create equal conditions on their receiving to producers, will increase their competitiveness in the WTO market.

Impact of the Covid-19 pandemic crisis on small and medium-sized businesses

Introduction. Throughout the existence of the Russian Federation, its economy is constantly being shaken by crises, and the year 2020 was no exception, when the Covid crisis broke out in the country, as a result of which service enterprises were badly affected. In this regard, we believe that assessing the impact of the current crisis on small and medium-sized businesses, as well as analyzing state support measures, is an urgent and timely task being solved by economic science. Theoretical analysis. Around the world, small and medium-sized businesses are the backbone of the economy, since in developed countries their share occupies more than 80%. The increased attention and demand of this sphere is due to their high adaptability to crisis situations, as well as the involvement of a significant number of employees in the business. As for Russian realities, in the early 1990s, the demand for this type of enterprise was insignificant, due to the legacy of the Soviet Union in the form of large monopolies, but in the process of transformation and the transition to the digital economy, the country’s government is forming infrastructure aimed at supporting this sector. Empirical analysis. The response in developed countries of the world (USA, Germany, Italy, UK) to the Covid-19 crisis was the support of entrepreneurs in the form of interest-free lending, deferral of loan and leasing payments, and employee benefits. In Russia, on the one hand, the rescue package was close to the world one, but in fact many entrepreneurs were unable to take advantage of them, due to high bureaucracy and a weak regulatory and legislative framework. Results. The Covid crisis has largely struck the Russian service sector, as a result, more than 3 million entrepreneurs are on the verge of closing their businesses, and some have already become bankrupt. The negative factors that aggravated the situation were also: a decrease in real incomes of the population, a decrease in oil prices and economic sanctions against Russia. As a result of a circumstances combination, the economy plunged into crisis and the Government of the Russian Federation was forced to develop measures aimed at maintaining small and medium-sized businesses, but these measures are not enough and enterprises continue to close. The only positive point is the transition of most enterprises to an online format, which brings the country closer to the digital economy.

The state role in the investments development in Russia’s digital economy

Introduction. The current stage of development is characterized by widespread digitalization of almost all economy spheres. One of the key areas for the developing digital economy in the Russian Federation is investments and investment relations. The state supports and develops the investments in data-driven formation of the digital economy. The article examines some of the subjects of the country’s influence on the mechanisms for expanding the innovation investment sphere, regarding local development specifics. Theoretical analysis. There are two categories for considering government influence on investments in the digital economy – the investment climate and the country’s investment policy. The key part of the research process is a set of economic, sociological and statistical methods, as well as applied scientific analysis in digitalization field of public institutions, institutional investment and investment relations as part of the economic system. Empirical analysis. Analyzed topical aspects of state role on the investments development in a rapidly changing environment, divided them into six fundamental categories. The process is presented in the forms of activating the legislative process and the testing of regulatory “sandboxes”. The article describes the caution of the Russian Federation in choosing a supported investment industry, its type and accompanying regulatory legal acts. Results. The research shows the development aspects description chosen by the state to support investment in digital economy conditions and a fact analysis of the state methods of influence on investment relations in the context of global and country economy digitalization.