экономическая система

Constitutional Regulation of Economic Relations in Foreign Countries: History and Modernity

Introduction. The constitutional regulation is considered as an impact of a constitution on the most essential aspects of life in society. Singling out common features of the constitutional regulation, “generations of constitutions” does not resolve an issue of existence of the common and special features in formulation of the principles of functioning of various systems, including economic relations, in constitutions of various periods. Theoretical analysis. Stipulation of the constitutional regulations on the bases of the economic system of the state depends to a lesser extent on the time of creation of the constitution. When determining economic bases, leaders of states rely mostly on economic policies. Еmpirical analysis. Assessment of provisions of constitutions of various foreign countries showed that three components of the constitutional regulation of the relations under consideration can be found in the consitutions of "the first generation". Such models can be singled out from the position of legal status of a personality, from the position of organization of public power and from the position of a territorial structure of a state. The constitutions of “the second generation” considerably broadened the sphere of the constitutional regulation of public relations including the economic sphere. In modern constitutions economic relations are regulated with a high degree of unification. Results. The similarity of the basic principles of the constitutional consolidation of economic relations does not mean existence of a uniform model of the constitutional regulation of the economic relations. The lack of the uniform model is caused by traditions of the constitutional legislation of a particular state, arrangement of political forces at the time of development of the draft constitution.

The Relationship between Structural Changes and Economic Development of Russia

Introduction. This article investigates the relationship between changes in the structure of Russia’s economy and economic development at the stage of the postindustrial society formation. The purpose of this scientific article is to study the mechanism of interaction of structural changes and economic dynamics with their qualitative and quantitative sides. Theoretical analysis. The author explores the impact of major production factors (technological progress, capital and labor) on structural shifts between the pre-industrial, industrial and post-industrial sectors of the economy. The next step is to examine the impact of shifts between these sectors on overall economic dynamics. To achieve stable growth of the national economy on the basis of the extension of the post-industrial way of production it is necessary to involve progressive determinants of technological progress: innovations in production technologies, highly skilled human capital. These provisions are analyzed on the basis of the closed system of the national economy taking into account the influence of external economic factors, depending on world energy prices. Results. The made a conclusion about the necessity of forming a new model of Russia’s economy macroeconomic development through diversification of its structure, priority investment into innovative industries and sectors, implementing of major infrastructure projects

Institutional Тransformation of the Underground Economy

Introduction. The underground economy as an economic system is investigated in the article. According to some estimates, the underground economy volume in Russia amounts to 46% of GDP. The purpose of a scientific article is to study the institutional mechanism of transformation of the underground economy system.

Theoretical analysis. The author explores the systemic signs of the underground economy, among which there are: integrity, openness, adaptability, reproducibility, structure, and hierarchy. The structure of the underground economy, including three sectors: socially dangerous (criminal) forms of the underground economy; various forms of opportunistic behavior of economic agents and socio-benign forms of underground activities (e.g., home economy), is examined. The main and derivative contradictions of underground economy are revealed. The institutional mechanism of transformation of the underground economy is studied; its options and contradictions are considered. The author analyzed two directions of transformation of the underground economy: restriction (liquidation) of socially dangerous forms and legalization (legitimisation) the most «healthy» elements.

Results. 
The author makes a conclusion about the necessity of state strategy of institutional transformation of the underground economy. The principles and objectives of institutionalization of the underground economy system in Russia at the present stage are defined.