экономическая система

Mechanism of Neoindustrialization: Methodology of Justification

The mechanism of implementation of neoindustrialization of economy is an object of the research of economic science. Due to the short time the researches of the problems of neoindustrialization and complexity of modern economic situation, the changes of the legislation, the formation of new economic policy the problem of creation of the effective mechanism of implementation of the process of neoindustrialization of Russian economy and also the allocation and the involvement of the factors of its use requires serious study. Theoretical analysis. In the article the content of the mechanism of implementation of neoindustrialization of economy is investigated. It can be built on the methodological approaches to the analysis of economic mechanism, created in economic science, and taking into account the methodology of the analysis of process of neoindustrialization. Discussion of results. The result of the problem of the mechanism of neoindustrialization developed by the author was the interpretation of concept of the mechanism of neoindustrialization, the allocation of its components, the disclosure of concrete results of their interaction, the justification of the essence and its public mission, the role of this mechanism in the formation of texnotronical productive forces and in the transition of Russian economy to a new technological way is analysed.

Conceptual aspects of sustainable development of economic systems: Evolution of approaches and modern paradigm

Introduction. The relevance of scientific substantiation of approaches to sustainable development management is due to the need to take into account external changes and the development of conceptual provisions for the adaptation of economic systems. Theoretical analysis. The article summarizes the main approaches to the interpretation of the “sustainable development” concept. The evolution of economic thought and the historical transformation of views towards the study of sustainable development concerning various objects are considered. The scientific approaches and studies of leading foreign and domestic scientists are presented, which constituted the theoretical and methodological basis of the sustainable development concept. The essence of the category “sustainability of development” concerning economic systems is revealed. Empirical analysis. The economic, social and environmental substantiation of the sustainable development concept is given. The external and internal factors influencing the stability of economic systems are investigated. The stability of the system is considered through the prism of such interrelated system characteristics as controllability and adaptability. Results. The relevance of the application of an integrated approach to the study of the triad “society – economy – ecology” is shown. It is substantiated that the synergy of the main provisions of economic theory, conceptual principles of sustainable development, system analysis of the countries’ development determinants in the context of new global challenges and threats should underlie the strategic provision of sustainable development in the long term.

Factors of Social Services Markets’ Restructuring in the Information Economy in Russia

Introduction. A modern economy, based on digital technologies and new consumption patterns, is restructuring not only traditional areas of business, but also markets that were not previously influenced by private capital. First of all, this applies to markets related to education and medical care. Theoretical analysis. The understanding of the modern theory of structural changes in the economic sector is based on the concept of structural shifts (qualitative changes) between the three main sectors (primary, secondary and tertiary) (J. Kruger, C. Clark, S. Kuznets), due to the uneven dynamics of their development (O. Yu. Krasilnikov). Theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of structural changes in modern economics are based on their assessment not as a consequence, but as one of the sources of economic growth (J. Lin). Based on the analysis of structural changes, conditions and tasks for an active structural policy are determined. Empirical analysis. The factors influencing the change in the structure of markets in the fields of medicine and education are decomposed. An analysis of the educational and medical services markets’ restructuring is carried out in the following areas: changing the nature of demand through new consumption patterns; the study of statistical information on the financial and physical volumes of the medical and educational services’ markets; determination of the state budgetary policy impact in the social sphere; assessment of disruptive innovations’ impact. Results. Among the most significant factors influencing the economic structure of the medical and educational sectors, there are such as changes in customer preferences and consumption patterns, market for relevant services’ restructuring and the emergence of new internal market niches, state policy that directly or indirectly affects the redistribution of financial flows within industries and the increased importance of modern digital technology application in the production of services.

Constitutional Regulation of Economic Relations in Foreign Countries: History and Modernity

Introduction. The constitutional regulation is considered as an impact of a constitution on the most essential aspects of life in society. Singling out common features of the constitutional regulation, “generations of constitutions” does not resolve an issue of existence of the common and special features in formulation of the principles of functioning of various systems, including economic relations, in constitutions of various periods. Theoretical analysis. Stipulation of the constitutional regulations on the bases of the economic system of the state depends to a lesser extent on the time of creation of the constitution. When determining economic bases, leaders of states rely mostly on economic policies. Еmpirical analysis. Assessment of provisions of constitutions of various foreign countries showed that three components of the constitutional regulation of the relations under consideration can be found in the consitutions of "the first generation". Such models can be singled out from the position of legal status of a personality, from the position of organization of public power and from the position of a territorial structure of a state. The constitutions of “the second generation” considerably broadened the sphere of the constitutional regulation of public relations including the economic sphere. In modern constitutions economic relations are regulated with a high degree of unification. Results. The similarity of the basic principles of the constitutional consolidation of economic relations does not mean existence of a uniform model of the constitutional regulation of the economic relations. The lack of the uniform model is caused by traditions of the constitutional legislation of a particular state, arrangement of political forces at the time of development of the draft constitution.

The Relationship between Structural Changes and Economic Development of Russia

Introduction. This article investigates the relationship between changes in the structure of Russia’s economy and economic development at the stage of the postindustrial society formation. The purpose of this scientific article is to study the mechanism of interaction of structural changes and economic dynamics with their qualitative and quantitative sides. Theoretical analysis. The author explores the impact of major production factors (technological progress, capital and labor) on structural shifts between the pre-industrial, industrial and post-industrial sectors of the economy. The next step is to examine the impact of shifts between these sectors on overall economic dynamics. To achieve stable growth of the national economy on the basis of the extension of the post-industrial way of production it is necessary to involve progressive determinants of technological progress: innovations in production technologies, highly skilled human capital. These provisions are analyzed on the basis of the closed system of the national economy taking into account the influence of external economic factors, depending on world energy prices. Results. The made a conclusion about the necessity of forming a new model of Russia’s economy macroeconomic development through diversification of its structure, priority investment into innovative industries and sectors, implementing of major infrastructure projects

Institutional Тransformation of the Underground Economy

Introduction. The underground economy as an economic system is investigated in the article. According to some estimates, the underground economy volume in Russia amounts to 46% of GDP. The purpose of a scientific article is to study the institutional mechanism of transformation of the underground economy system.

Theoretical analysis. The author explores the systemic signs of the underground economy, among which there are: integrity, openness, adaptability, reproducibility, structure, and hierarchy. The structure of the underground economy, including three sectors: socially dangerous (criminal) forms of the underground economy; various forms of opportunistic behavior of economic agents and socio-benign forms of underground activities (e.g., home economy), is examined. The main and derivative contradictions of underground economy are revealed. The institutional mechanism of transformation of the underground economy is studied; its options and contradictions are considered. The author analyzed two directions of transformation of the underground economy: restriction (liquidation) of socially dangerous forms and legalization (legitimisation) the most «healthy» elements.

The author makes a conclusion about the necessity of state strategy of institutional transformation of the underground economy. The principles and objectives of institutionalization of the underground economy system in Russia at the present stage are defined.