дистанция выстрела

Empirical study of morphological signs of traces of gunshots with shot poly projectile on woven materials

Introduction. The theory of forensic examination highlights that an effective study of traces at the scene of an incident is possible only with a comprehensive study of all types of traces. Therefore, to objectively assess the circumstances in the conditions of detecting traces of fi rearms, one should apply an integrated approach to the method of working with traces and use methods of examination of substances, materials and products, alongside ballistic methods. Methods. The success of the investigation of a specifi c event largely depends on the objective establishment of the circumstances under which the shot was fi red, which can be done as a result of an integrated approach to the research process and experimental research. Empirical analysis. The experiment was carried out in an open area. Experimental shooting was carried out on four types of fabrics most demanded by the garment industry: knitwear, polyester, woolen fabric, denim from a distance of 5, 10, 15 meters. The shots were fi red from IZH18E 12-gauge smooth-bore hunting fi rearm, using a shot poly shell (shot with the number 0000 diameter – 5 mm). A total of 28 shots were fi red – 7 shots at each type of fabric. Results. In the course of the studies carried out on woven materials, the author identifi ed a number of morphological features that had not previously been noted by researchers and that help to display the situation at the scene of the incident with a higher degree of reliability and facilitate further expert research. The change in organoleptic and morphological characteristics on various types of tissues is analyzed depending on their physical and mechanical properties, color, structure and distance from which the shot was fi red. Conclusion. The article is devoted to the analysis of morphological features that occur when shooting from a smoothbore hunting rifl e on various types of woven materials with a shotgun from diff erent distances. It is assumed that as a result of the study, data on the model of the weapon used, the type of cartridge, the direction and distance of the shot can be established.

Research into Morphological Signs Arising When Shooting from Snoothbore Hunting Weapon at Glass from Triplex

Introduction. Automobile windshields act as objects of research in various categories of cases – criminal, civil, etc. The information obtained in the study of such objects is of important evidentiary value. From the forensic point of view, the windshields of automobiles, which are made of triplex and have physico-mechanical and consumer characteristics that are different from ordinary glasses, are of the greatest interest. Theoretical analysis. The article is devoted to the analysis of morphological features that occur when shooting from a smoothbore hunting rifle into the windshield of a car with various types of shells and from different distances. The triplex design implies a special fracture pattern, which is formed by a multilayer structure, moreover, the polymer layer does not allow broken fragments to crumble. The author analyzed the characteristics of the features that allow, with a high degree of certainty, to quickly determine the approximate direction of projectile approach and the distance of the shot. Discussion of results. On the basis of the study of morphological signs that occur when shooting from a smoothbore hunting weapon into a car windshield from triplex, the direction of projectile approach to the glass is determined, as well as the differences in damage caused by different shells and the same shells, but from different distances.

Firearms of Limited Damage on the Basis of the Tula Tokarev (TT) Pistol and Features of the Deposition of Shot Products on Obstructions of Non-biological Origin when Fired from Close Range

Introduction. One of the types of limited-fire barreled weapons (LLW) is the limited liability company created at the manufacturing enterprises of Russia’s limited liability company on the basis of models and models of short-barreled combat firearms (pistols and revolvers), by introducing into the design a sample of short-barreled combat firearms of the factory making changes made by legal replacement of its trunk under a regular cartridge on the trunk (imitator of the trunk) under the cartridge of a traumatic action, or adaptation trunk at regular cartridge for firing a cartridge traumatic preserving other original parts and components (shutter-casing frame of the trigger) of the arms of the sample, with the subsequent certification of the arms as a new model LLW. To models LLW, designed and produced in Russia in this way, it is possible to attribute and OOOP on the basis of a combat rifled short-barreled firearm – a pistol of the Tokarev design of the sample 1930/1933. (“TT – Tula Tokarev”) of caliber 7,62 mm (LLW on the basis of a pistol TT). In the current literature there is practically no data on the structural features of the trunks or imitators of the trunks of the LLW on the basis of the TT pistol and on the morphological features of the traces of the shot and the limiting distances in the detection of the traces of a shot from it on non-biological (tissue) barriers, as a result of which experiments were undertaken to establish the distance of detection of traces of a shot from the barrel of the LLW on the basis of the TT gun, and the study of the patterns of deposition of the shot products on the barrier, depending on t structural features of the trunk of LLW based on the TT gun and other factors (used regular traumatic cartridge). Methods of research. Experimental part. In the course of the work, certain structural features of the trunks of various models of LLW were built on the basis of the TT pistol (MP-81 pistol and the Leader-M pistol), after which the standard models of traumatic action of the corresponding caliber were fired from experimental models tissue targets from various distances from the muzzle of the trunk (or imitator of the trunk) of the weapon to the surface of the target (from 5 to 50 cm) and with the relatively tight contact of the muzzle of the barrel of the weapon with the outside The target is the target. Results of the study. The dependence of the picture of the deposition of the shot products (shot soot and unburned or half-burned particles of gunpowder) on the tissue barrier from the caliber and the design features of the barrel (imitator of the barrel) of the LLW models on the basis of the TT gun with shots from a close distance. Discussion of results. The possibility of producing differential diagnostic studies of gunshot injuries on fabric barriers formed during shots from individual models of LLW based on the TT pistol, depending on the caliber of the cartridge and the structural features of the barrel (imitator of the barrel), with the establishment of a close shot distance in the case of using or using this type weapons, allowing to distinguish them on the basis of these damages. The need to continue research work on the study of structural features of the trunks of other models of LLW based on the TT pistol (pistol “VPO-501 PS – Leader” under the cartridge of the traumatic action 10x32T, equipped with two rubber bullets, pistol TT-T under patron of the traumatic action 10x28T) and especially the formation of gunshot injuries on the fabric barriers for shots from these weapons models.

The Influence of the Design of the Barrel Firearms Limited Destruction on the Deposition Product Shots for Shots at Close Distance over a Hedge Non-biological Origin

Introduction. The theme urgency is defined as prevalence in the territory of the Russian Federation barreled firearms limited destruction (major crimes), major crimes than the barrel and damage the projectiles had shot out of him, obstacles of a different nature is the objects of ballistic research during the investigation of various incidents related to the application or use of major crimes in the solution of diagnostic problems of expert determine the distance of the shot from the muzzle face to the obstacles and determine the type and model of firearm (major crimes), shot from where the damage formed on the barrier ( including the garments). Methodology of research. Experimental part. During the preparation of the work have been established certain design features of the barrels of various models of major crimes as the production of Russia (pistols, «Storm-51» and «Storm-21», MP-79-9TM, Mr-80-13T, LL, 81), and major crimes of foreign production («GRAND POWER T10»). Splitting the data models of major crimes into three groups on the basis of the design of the barrel wopp his muzzle (the front part), then out of the major crimes of these models was carried out shooting staff for them by cartridges of traumatic action corresponding experimental tissue fire at targets from different distances from the muzzle of the barrel of the gun to the target surface (from 5 to 100 cm) and at relatively close contact muzzle end of the barrel with the outer surface of the target. Results of study. Study of damage on targets and product shots on the surfaces of the targets, the dependence pattern of deposition of products of a shot (a shot soot and unburnt or semiburnt down particles of gunpowder) on the barrier fabric to the size and construction of the barrel barreled firearms limited destruction (major crimes) for shots at close range. Discussion of results. Practical recommendations. The possibility of production of differential diagnostic examinations of gunshot injuries at the tissue barriers formed by shots from major crimes, depending on its type, caliber and cartridge design features of the trunk, with the establishment of a distance close shot in case of application or use of a weapon that allows to differentiate them on signs of data damage, which is especially important in the case of simultaneous use or the use of various models of major crimes. Noted the need for a centralized collection of experimental damage to the target tissue, obtained, if possible, all samples and models of major crimes, and are certified in the legal turnover on the territory of the Russian Federation (RF) with subsequent dissemination in electronic form (in the form of electronic images) throughout the system of forensic institutions of the RF.


Введение. Исследование проблем определения дистанции выстрела из огнестрельного оружия является весьма актуальным, поскольку такая задача весьма часто возникает в практике расследования преступлений, а существующие методы ее решения не всегда эффективны. Теоретический анализ. Актуальной проблемой существующих методов является поиск статистически значимых признаков дистанции выстрела, которые бы позволили определять ее в узком диапазоне и с приемлемой надежностью. Методика исследования. В качестве методов исследования применялись моделирование, эксперимент, статистический анализ. Экспериментальная часть. Целью работы была оценка значимости размера периферийной зоны отложения копоти как признака дистанции выстрела из пистолета Марголина. Размер зон измерялся на экспериментально полученных следах с помощью специально сконструированного и изготовленного на 3D принтере фотометра. Полученные данные о размерах зон подвергались анализу методами математической статистики. Обсуждение результатов. Основными результатами анализа являются следующие. Во-первых, размер периферийной зоны позво- ляет с надежностью 95% дифференцировать следующие интервалы дистанций выстрела из пистолета МЦМ: 0–1, 2–14, 15–21 и 22–29 см. Во-вторых, зависимость размера периферийной зоны отложения копоти от дистанции выстрела нелинейная – размер вначале увеличивается, затем уменьшается. При этом как самостоятельный признак может использоваться только размер периферийной зоны 8,5–9,73 см, который указывает на выстрел с дистанции от 2 до 14 см. Интервалы дистанций 15–21 и 22–29 см могут быть надежно дифферен- цированы друг от друга и от интервала 2–14 см. Для дифференциации интервалов 15–21, 22–29 и 2–14 см от интервала 0–1 см, помимо размера периферийной зоны, необходимо дополнительно использовать иные признаки.