цифровая экономика

Precarization of employment in digital economy

Introduction. Precarization of employment has become one of the objective and signifi cant manifestations of the employment processes transformation in the digital economy, while it is rapidly expanding and becoming more complex. The increase in upward precarization, depending on the degree of digitalization processes development and economic turbulence, indicates that it has acquired the qualities and characteristics of a clearly dominant trend in modern economic development, which has already become a reality for diff erent categories of employed and which all participants and contractors of the labor market – employees and employers – have to reckon with. Precarization of the employed is a relatively new and therefore only fragmentally studied phenomenon not only for the global labor market, but also for the Russian labor market, where it has its manifestations and features. All this in general determines the relevance of the research topic. Theoretical analysis. The study of various aspects of precarization of employment in the digital economy as a stochastic system – its content, causes, main manifestations and related consequences, externalities – is of scientifi c interest. Particularly signifi cant in epistemological and ontological aspects is the analysis of the reasons for the intensifi cation of precarization processes in digital economy in relation to Russian conditions, namely, the reduction of jobs, the excess of the need for new specialists over the capabilities of the modern education system, the transition to the platformization of labor processes, the expansion of the short-term contracts economy. Results. Active processes of precarization in the digital economy create conditions for the formation of new employment standards and new competencies of the employed.

The state role in the investments development in Russia’s digital economy

Introduction. The current stage of development is characterized by widespread digitalization of almost all economy spheres. One of the key areas for the developing digital economy in the Russian Federation is investments and investment relations. The state supports and develops the investments in data-driven formation of the digital economy. The article examines some of the subjects of the country’s influence on the mechanisms for expanding the innovation investment sphere, regarding local development specifics. Theoretical analysis. There are two categories for considering government influence on investments in the digital economy – the investment climate and the country’s investment policy. The key part of the research process is a set of economic, sociological and statistical methods, as well as applied scientific analysis in digitalization field of public institutions, institutional investment and investment relations as part of the economic system. Empirical analysis. Analyzed topical aspects of state role on the investments development in a rapidly changing environment, divided them into six fundamental categories. The process is presented in the forms of activating the legislative process and the testing of regulatory “sandboxes”. The article describes the caution of the Russian Federation in choosing a supported investment industry, its type and accompanying regulatory legal acts. Results. The research shows the development aspects description chosen by the state to support investment in digital economy conditions and a fact analysis of the state methods of influence on investment relations in the context of global and country economy digitalization.

Digital Economy: Key Trends and Development Objectives

Introduction. This study aims to analyze the essence of “digital economy” definition, study the main trends in its development and identification of the specifics of its formation in Russia, as well as the definition of the digital economy developing objectives in our country in the medium term. Theoretical analysis. Today digital economy has become an integral part of the socio-economic development. Thus, the analysis of digitalization trends, the assessment of its role in society, the impact of digital modernization on economic growth and life quality indicators are the most important research objectives. The article analyzes approaches to defining the concept of digital economy as a socio-economic phenomenon, on the basis of which the author’s approach to the interpretation of the economic category of “digital economy” is proposed. The global trends of digital economy development and the features of its formation in Russia are considered. Empirical analysis. Based on the main world digital economy ratings’ analysis, this study confirms both the achievements and the problematic aspects of its formation in Russia. It is noted that today, on a global scale, digital modernization is moving to the stage of building a digital society as a new global system and an additional impact to this process is given by the economy crisis connected with spreading of the new coronavirus infection. Among the main problems of digital modernization in Russia are the lag in the digital infrastructure development, the digital divide between regions and the consumption digitalization to the detriment of the digital industries development and creating of high added value into the digital industry. At the same time, the positive trends are the domestic business interest in digital transformations and the world class level of public services sector digitalization. Results. Based on the analysis, the article’s authors see the accelerated development of digital infrastructure, large-scale digitalization of industry and basic life spheres, as well as the digital literacy development and the education system modernization, as main objectives on the way to the digital economy development in our country.

Factors of Social Services Markets’ Restructuring in the Information Economy in Russia

Introduction. A modern economy, based on digital technologies and new consumption patterns, is restructuring not only traditional areas of business, but also markets that were not previously influenced by private capital. First of all, this applies to markets related to education and medical care. Theoretical analysis. The understanding of the modern theory of structural changes in the economic sector is based on the concept of structural shifts (qualitative changes) between the three main sectors (primary, secondary and tertiary) (J. Kruger, C. Clark, S. Kuznets), due to the uneven dynamics of their development (O. Yu. Krasilnikov). Theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of structural changes in modern economics are based on their assessment not as a consequence, but as one of the sources of economic growth (J. Lin). Based on the analysis of structural changes, conditions and tasks for an active structural policy are determined. Empirical analysis. The factors influencing the change in the structure of markets in the fields of medicine and education are decomposed. An analysis of the educational and medical services markets’ restructuring is carried out in the following areas: changing the nature of demand through new consumption patterns; the study of statistical information on the financial and physical volumes of the medical and educational services’ markets; determination of the state budgetary policy impact in the social sphere; assessment of disruptive innovations’ impact. Results. Among the most significant factors influencing the economic structure of the medical and educational sectors, there are such as changes in customer preferences and consumption patterns, market for relevant services’ restructuring and the emergence of new internal market niches, state policy that directly or indirectly affects the redistribution of financial flows within industries and the increased importance of modern digital technology application in the production of services.

Capital Market Structure Changes in an Emerging Digital Economy

Introduction. The structure of the capital market can be classified according to several parameters: time, institutional, organizational, etc. The article examines the functional structure of the capital market. Theoretical analysis. Various types of changes in the functional structure of the capital market due to the digitalization of the economy – human, monetary, currency, stock, credit and investment – are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to changes in the structure of human capital associated with the replacement of traditional economic activities (primarily based on the exploitation of natural resources) by technologically more advanced types. First of all, changes in the structure of monetary capital are the introduction of various electronic payment systems and non-state monetary systems based on cryptocurrencies. Shifts in the capital structure in the foreign exchange and stock markets are manifested in the transfer of major transactions into the virtual sphere. Changing the structure of credit markets in the context of digitalization has both positive (growth of lending) and negative sides (increase in overdue debt). Results. A conclusion is made about the contradictory impact of the capital market structure changes on economic dynamics in the conditions of digitalization.

Digital Economy: Content and Development Trends

Introduction. The subject of the research is the basic properties and patterns of the digital economy development. Theoretical analysis. The methodology of the post-industrial and information society theory is used. It has been hypothesized that the digital economy is a new stage in the economy and society development. The structure of the information economy is revealed. New qualities of digital economy are defined, such as: the main type of product, transfer from goods production to service production, information-networking structure formation, change of proportions and destinations of investment assets, increase of creative work role, emergence of new management technologies, etc. Empirical analysis. The impact of digitalization on the activities of the state, enterprises and organizations, households and individuals is characterized. The features of the digital economy market relations development are substantiated. The influence of information and communication technologies and information resources on business functioning is shown. The growing activity of Russian enterprises and companies in the Internet is paid attention to. Trends and patterns of the digital economy development are revealed. The results can be applied in the development of concepts and programs aimed at accelerating the digital economy formation in Russia.

Industrial Economic Systems’ Digitalization: Problems and Consequences of Modern Technologies

Introduction. The article is devoted to the disclosure of the essence of the industry’s digital transformation, which, according to the authors, is the key to building an economy of knowledge and obtaining measurable economic results by introducing cross-cutting technologies. Theoretical analysis. The fundamental factors influencing the increase of Russia’s global competitiveness in the context of its technological breakthrough are highlighted. The main modern trends are the huge amount of information that companies have to deal with, the rapid change of business models, the emergence of innovative management tools. The problems of industrial economic systems’ digitalization are analyzed, for the solution of which the adaptation of companies to new realities is required. It is digital transformation that can take the company to a new level of development and business efficiency. The article substantiates that the digital transformation of production and the legacy industries connected with it is a priority for all industrialized countries that have created their competitive advan It is proved that the digital transformation of production should be aimed at improving the efficiency, productivity and competitiveness of domestic industry in the world arena. Currently, this sector of the economy is undergoing major changes caused by the introduction of intelligent systems that promote the convergence of the physical and digital worlds. These extensive technological changes should be accompanied by the development of fundamentally new business processes at all levels of management.

Global Digital Space: Prospects and Threats to the Economic Development of Countries

Introduction. Currently, the world is creating a global digital space. This process covers, to a greater or lesser extent, virtually all countries of the world. The relevance and vitality of this process is proved by the digitalization of not only the economy, but also of all spheres of human activity. Despite the increasing degree of research of this process, there raises the question of finding the threats and prospects that should be expected from digitalization for the economic development of our country. Theoretical analysis. The historical aspect of the digital economy development is investigated, the causes of this process are revealed. The article notes the first identification of this concept with such concepts as e-Commerce, file exchange through a peer-to-peer network. We consider the prevention of simplified understanding of digitalization, linking it only with these concepts. The data on the emergence of completely different phenomena, connected with the digitalization in the XXI century, the features of this process in different countries of the world in the context of the existing process of globalization are given. Both advantages and threats associated with the penetration of digitalization into the global space are considered. The benefits of digitalization are linked to the ease of copying, transmission and dissemination of information. The threats to the global space that are caused by the spread of digitalization can be associated with copyright infringement, copying, “piracy”, which ultimately results in the loss of investment. The influence of external political and economic threats that are applied to our country can no longer exclude Russia from the list of business partners in these new conditions of globalization. Digitalization erases all obstacles to cooperation between different countries, including Russia. Empirical analysis. The article analyzes the facts that prove the undeniable advantages of digitalization for all countries. The leaders in the market of IT are revealed, taking into account such indicators as the number of Internet users, convenience/difficulty of access, the availability of analog additions, the developed telecommunications market, which does not exclude the possibility of its further development. It is noted that today they influence the transition of countries from one category to a higher one. In this regard, the classification of countries presented by the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) is relevant. It is based on indicators showing the presence of high technology: the relative level of development of digital operations and GDP per capita, the degree of economic operations’ digitalization. These data make it possible to identify the most developed countries. There are currently no more than six. Results. Taking into account the factors described in the article will contribute to the implementation of the main goal of digitalization penetration into the global space – the achievement of business success in all countries, including Russia. This makes it possible to speak about a new meaning of the concept “globalization” and makes the thesis of “the invisible hand of the market”, i.e. personal interest, relevant again.