Law

Guns of the Internal Forces: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow

Introduction. In light of recent events, security sector reform, the issue of security becomes particularly relevant. The development of small arms is not in place. The troops received new samples of the weapon, thereby sending to the history of the predecessors. Theoretical analysis. The paper presents a technical description of the guns, standing ever in service of internal troops of the Ministry of internal Affairs of the Russian Federation from the date of their formation. Comparative characteristics of the samples. Disclosed constructive characteristics of each. The analysis of tactical and technical data. Highlighted the positive side of each sample, noting their shortcomings. Directions of further development of pistols. Describes the problems and areas of work for design, production as handguns in General and ammo in particular. Conclusions. In the conditions of modern urban combat, when the most important factors of survival are not precision aiming, and the speed and skill with the weapon, the gun becomes one of the basic weapons.

Mechanism of Traceformation on Cases During Reloading when Repeated Use

Introduction. Recently in expert practice there registered the instances of using homemade reloaded rifled weapon cartridges. Purposes and tasks. To consider the problems of traceformation when reloading cases. To reveal on the reloaded cases the productive facilities significant traces available for forensic expert examination. To describe stepwise the reloading process and the equipment used. Experimental part. Examining the traces formed in the course of a shot was carried out with hunter’s cartridge cases ejected from .300 WIN MAG caliber Sauer 202 carbine. Discution of results. In terms of the cases examined the analysis of traceformation mechanism special features after repeated reloading was conducted. It allowed to draw conclusion on the repeated use of cases, otherwise – on their reloading by means of one and the same equipment.

Cartridge SC-4 Use in Self-made Tabeless Weapons

Introduction. Open society, free internet access, modern means of communication and the press, lack of control over the media has led to the fact that many previously closed publications and reports on the development of small arms, ammunition, explosive devices, have become open to all those interested in the topic. As a result, recent years have seen a large number of applications for criminal purposes self-made firearms and ammunition or ammunition of nontraditional design. Special cartridge SС-4, standard cartridgeto the PSS silentgun,is nontraditional ammunition, because its design has a special piston seal, ejecting the bullet when fired and locking powder gases in the body of the cartridge case, thereby providing a noiseless and flameless fire. This ammunition is available in criminal trafficking and according to experts practitioners can be used independently as a cartridgebarrel without a regular weapon. Experimental part. The article presents the results of experimental studies on the possibility of using a special cartridge SС-4 in a self-made tubeless firearms; the possible options for self-made firearms with a cartridge SС-4 as the barrel. Discussion of results. Using the cartridge SС-4 alone as a cartridge-barrel is not safe. Despite the fact that the bullet in this case has sufficient destructive power, the disruption of a cartridge case eliminates one of the criteria of a firearm, namely reliability. When used in a product enhance a metallic case of cartridge SC-4, self-made firing device can meet the criteria of a firearm. In this case it should be referred to a firearm. Conclusions. Cartridge case is used in self-made tubeless design firearm as a barrel. Special cartridge SС-4 alone cannot be used to create self-made tubeless weapons, although whenthe bullet is activated cartridge has enough destructive power.In the case of improvement of a special cartridge SС-4 by strengthening the cartridge case self-made firing device can meet the criteria of a firearm and should be referred to the tubeless self-made firearms.

The Influence of the Design of the Barrel Firearms Limited Destruction on the Deposition Product Shots for Shots at Close Distance over a Hedge Non-biological Origin

Introduction. The theme urgency is defined as prevalence in the territory of the Russian Federation barreled firearms limited destruction (major crimes), major crimes than the barrel and damage the projectiles had shot out of him, obstacles of a different nature is the objects of ballistic research during the investigation of various incidents related to the application or use of major crimes in the solution of diagnostic problems of expert determine the distance of the shot from the muzzle face to the obstacles and determine the type and model of firearm (major crimes), shot from where the damage formed on the barrier ( including the garments). Methodology of research. Experimental part. During the preparation of the work have been established certain design features of the barrels of various models of major crimes as the production of Russia (pistols, «Storm-51» and «Storm-21», MP-79-9TM, Mr-80-13T, LL, 81), and major crimes of foreign production («GRAND POWER T10»). Splitting the data models of major crimes into three groups on the basis of the design of the barrel wopp his muzzle (the front part), then out of the major crimes of these models was carried out shooting staff for them by cartridges of traumatic action corresponding experimental tissue fire at targets from different distances from the muzzle of the barrel of the gun to the target surface (from 5 to 100 cm) and at relatively close contact muzzle end of the barrel with the outer surface of the target. Results of study. Study of damage on targets and product shots on the surfaces of the targets, the dependence pattern of deposition of products of a shot (a shot soot and unburnt or semiburnt down particles of gunpowder) on the barrier fabric to the size and construction of the barrel barreled firearms limited destruction (major crimes) for shots at close range. Discussion of results. Practical recommendations. The possibility of production of differential diagnostic examinations of gunshot injuries at the tissue barriers formed by shots from major crimes, depending on its type, caliber and cartridge design features of the trunk, with the establishment of a distance close shot in case of application or use of a weapon that allows to differentiate them on signs of data damage, which is especially important in the case of simultaneous use or the use of various models of major crimes. Noted the need for a centralized collection of experimental damage to the target tissue, obtained, if possible, all samples and models of major crimes, and are certified in the legal turnover on the territory of the Russian Federation (RF) with subsequent dissemination in electronic form (in the form of electronic images) throughout the system of forensic institutions of the RF.

Method of the Binarization of Images of Traces on the Shot Bullets for the Automatic Assessment of Their Suitability to Identification of the Fierarms

Introduction. Nowadays, automatic identification of weapons on electronic databases involves the analysis thousands of images of similar tracks, including images which are not suitable for identification. It is necessary to exclude from the analysis traces not suitable for identification for reduction of volume of calculations and increase of their efficiency. The aim of this work is the analysis of methods for assessing the suitability of traces to the identification and develop image binarization techniquie, which ensures minimal distortion of the width tracks on traces on the shot bullets. Theoretical analysis. There are two methods for evaluating of the suitability of dynamic traces to identify the weapon. The first is to count the number of lines, the width of the tracks and the spaces between them. The second is to find the autocorrelation function (ACF). The ACF form is close to a delta function form for a trace suitable for identification. The second method is more promising for the analysis of traces on the shot bullets. Experimental part. The authors proposed an image binarizatiom technique based on the construction of the image brightness profile. Application of this technique to images of dynamic traces, which are oriented vertically, allows adequately display the main tracks on binary images. Conclusion. The proposed method allows to get a binary image of traces on the shot bullets suitable for automatic analysis of their suitability for identifying and further comparing traces.

The Concept of Mathematical Model of the Assessment of Uniqueness of Sets of Coinciding Routes in Secondary Traces on the Shot Bullets

Introduction. The model of an assessment of probability of casual combination of sets of routes in secondary traces is considered in article. Development of quantitative criteria of justification of a categorical positive conclusion about criminalistic identity of the compared traces, and also algorithm of formation in the automatic mode of the priority list is the purpose of the conducted research. Theoretical part. Twodimensional images of traces of rifling fields used for the simulation. The formulas for estimating the probability of an accidental match of trails were obtained. Experimental part. Calculations performed on the developed formulas, the dependence of the probability of an event compared to the number of trails should be shown. Conclusion. The theoretical possibility of estimating the probability of a random alignment sets of trails (the degree of matching features unique complexes) and its use in practice is shown in this paper.

Quality Analysis of Background Microparticles Characteristic of the Product Shot

The paper deals with the content of chemical elements in the background, typical for product shots. The propagation problems of those elements and particles in the city environment were investigated. The typical elements and particles only for product shots were defined. Methodology of the study. Samples were taken at different sites and with different terrain surfaces. Samples were collected only in a solid form. Collection sites related to the frequency of finding the people around them and the probability of detection of substances similar shot products. The study was conducted by electron microscopy. Experimental part. Morphology images and chemical elemental composition of collected samples were obtained. It was found possible to detect product shots by: a) the difference in the qualitative composition of chemical elements shot and ambient background; b) in the absence of background particles from a circular shape having a certain size and the elemental composition of the characteristic shot. Discussion of the results. There was a dependence of the content of the background space Sampling. In this regard, the necessity of withdrawal of samples for studies not only the scene, but also environmental accident situation. Appearance and chemical composition of the particles typical for shot products were determined.

Metrological Aspects of Forensic Ballistic Reserch

Introduction. Conducting forensic ballistic investigations often involve changes to the results of which depend on the findings in many ways. According to local legislation, these measurements must meet certain requirements. Theoretical analysis. Analyzed compliance with the diagnostic techniques of forensic ballistic investigations homemade firing device for assigning it to firearms requirements of the Federal Law «On ensuring the uniformity of measurements». It is shown that the existing methodology is flawed, since it is in contradiction with the current metrological rules are not determined by random and systematic errors. Conclusions. It is proposed to either abandon the statistical processing of the measurement results and not to use the concept of the mean value, or increase the number of measurements for correct statistical treatment of results.

The Comparison of Digital Images of Firing Pin with a Dominant Features in the Form of Circles and Arcs

Introduction. Development of the algorithms for the automatic comparison of the digital images of firing pin is an important task of the forensic examination. This task is aimed at improving the efficiency of crime investigation involving the use of firearms. In this paper images of firing pin with the features in the form of circles and arcs with single center are investigated. The method based on modified Euclidean distance between circles of the similar firing pin was proposed to assess the degree of similarity of the traces. Preliminary processing. To eliminate the adverse effect of noise and various image artifacts were pretreated. Markers were placed to accurately determine the features in the form of circles. Method of searching paired tracks. Criteria based on modified Euclidean distance were developed for the formation of the priority list. Numerical experiment. In the numerical experiment database of 60 objects was used. Paired trace from firing pin array was included in top four of the prior list in 90 percent cases. Conclusions. The proposed algorithm allows to sort effectively and quickly the array of test objects by the degree of similarity of signs in the form of arcs and circles with relevant features of the test track.

Device for Experimental Shooting of Firearms and its Role in Providing Expert Research on Establishment of Circumstances of the Shot I. V. Latyshov Volgograd Academy of the Ministry of Interior of Russia,

Introduction. In order to meet the objectives for establishment of circumstances of the shot, the process of experimental shooting when shooting firearms propose a new design of a special device, allowing to obtain more accurate information about the gunshot residue in studies of objects with a complex shape of the outer surface. The article provides a comparative study of the traces of the shot from a Kalashnikov AKS-74U on the currently used flat targets and targets, mounted on a removable element with the ability to take the desired shape of the outer surface. Theoretical analysis. Now several designs of devices for experimental firing which along with advantages have also essential shortcomings are known. The main difference of the device presented in article from known is existence of a compound frame for installation of the target containing a removable element which is made of high-plastic material earlier. It allows to repeat a form of the object presented for examination at the time of a criminal shot. Experimental part. The study consisted of experimental firing, evaluation of the morphology of gunshot injuries and comparison of the topography of the distribution of gunshot residue in the area of gunshot injuries. Discussion of results. The analysis of traces of a close shot on flat and curved targets has allowed to establish distinctions of signs of influence of a gas-powder stream, thermal and mechanical effect of powder grains, adjournment of a soot. Conclusions. Found that when firing AKS-74U on flat targets and targets that are installed on the removable element, bent to the desired shape, there are differences in the morphological characteristics of gunshot injuries and topography sediment traces close shot. Thus, the use of the proposed device, comprising a removable element for attachment of the target, the shape of which follows the shape of the outer surface of the investigated object allows to obtain more accurate information about the gunshot residue in studies of objects with a complex shape of the outer surface.

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