Law

КОМПЕНСАЦИЯ ИСКАЖЕНИЙ НА ЦИФРОВЫХ ИЗОБРАЖЕНИЯХ СЛЕДОВ ОРУЖИЯ НА ВЫСТРЕЛЕННЫХ ПУЛЯХ, ОБУСЛОВЛЕННЫХ КРИВИЗНОЙ ИССЛЕДУЕМОЙ ПОВЕРХНОСТИ

Введение. Целью работы является оценка искажений изобра- жений следов на выстреленных пулях, обусловленных кривизной исследуемой поверхности, а также отработка методики их ком- пенсации. Теоретический анализ. Для оценки искажений и их компенсации был выбран метод узловых точек. Каждой узло- вой точке на искаженном изображении должна соответствовать заведомо известная одна узловая точка на неискаженном изо- бражении. Тогда координаты пикселей искаженного изображения можно пересчитать в координаты, которые будут соответствовать этим пикселям на недеформированном изображении. Модель- ный эксперимент. Для оценки возникающих искажений вто- ричный след моделировался в масштабе 1:50. Модель следа фотографировалась одним кадром (как при съемке на микро- скопе), а также 4 кадрами (аналогично сканированию с помощью автоматизированной баллистической идентификационной си- стемы (АБИС)). Методом наложения изображений определялись искажения однокадрового изображения. Экспериментальные исследования. Исследования были проведены для пуль, вы- стреленных из пистолета Макарова калибра 9 мм. Сравнивае- мый след был сфотографирован с помощью МСК, а также от- сканирован на АБИС «POISC», изображения приведены к одному масштабу и разрешению. Сравнение исходных изображений показало, что парные признаки, расположенные ближе к пери- ферии, не сов падают из-за существенных искажений изображе- ния, полученного на микроскопе. После пересчета искаженного изображения по отработанной на модельном эксперименте ме- тодике совпадающие трассы совместились как в центре, так и на периферии изображений. Выводы. Цифровые изображения вторичных следов, полученные на оптическом микроскопе, после компенсации искажений методом узловых точек могут использоваться для проведения проверок по электронной пулетеке авто- матизированной баллистической идентификационной системы

КОНСТИТУЦИОННО-ПРАВОВОЙ МЕХАНИЗМ ПУБЛИЧНОЙ ВЛАСТИ В КРЫМУ: ПРОБЛЕМЫ И ТЕНДЕНЦИИ РАЗВИТИЯ

Введение. В современных условиях одним из перспективных направлений исследова- ния является анализ конституционно-правового развития новых субъектов Российской Федерации – Республики Крым и г. Севастополя, в том числе проблем и тенденций развития их конституционно-правового механизма публичной власти. Теоретический анализ. Система органов публичной власти в Крыму опирается на совокупность кон- ституционных и законодательных установлений, содержащих порядок их формирова- ния, принципы функционирования, механизм взаимодействия с другими структурами федерального и регионального уровня. Эмпирический анализ. Процесс форми- рования органов государственной власти новых субъектов Федерации можно считать завершенным. Регулирование общественных отношений в сфере объединения носило оперативный, практически синхронный характер, что свидетельствует о стремлении фе- дерального центра и новых субъектов Федерации к сближению в законодательстве и правоприменительной деятельности. Результаты. Были выявлены проблемы функцио- нирования конституционно-правового механизма государственной власти в Республике Крым и г. Севастополе и сформулированы основные конституционно-правовые тенден- ции развития этих субъектов Российской Федерации.

Delegation of Authority to the Executive Authorities of the Russian Federation

Introduction. In modern conditions, the Institute of delegation acts as one of the most promising directions of increase of efficiency of the of activity of executive bodies. It promotes decentralization of management, ensures the transfer of authority to the level where they can be most completely implemented. Theoretical analysis. Out of the variety of concepts associated with delegation of authority process, advocated the need for a «delegation of authority» category as a generic term covering all types of delegation. Allocated general and specific principles of delegation within the executive branch. The special includes the principle of «exclusivity» of delegated powers, principle of delegation of «related powers» or branch principle, the principle of control and responsibility of the delegating authority, the principle of transparency, awareness of the subjects of the executive branch of the delegation process. Empirical analysis. The practice of concluding agreements indicates the need to eliminate internal contradictions and harmonization of agreements on the delegation of authority in the system of Executive authorities. Results. Improvement of legal regulation of the process of delegation of authority involves making changes and additions to the Federal law No. 184-FZ and regulations

ПРАВОВОЕ РЕГУЛИРОВАНИЕ ПРЕДВЫБОРНОЙ АГИТАЦИИ В СЕТИ ИНТЕРНЕТ

Введение. Современный уровень развития информацион- ных технологий позволяет проводить предвыборную агитацию посредством новейших средств массовой коммуникации, та- ких как сеть Интернет. В связи с этим многократно возрастает возможность распространения недостоверной информации, материалов и сообщений, порочащих кандидатов, манипули- рования общественным сознанием. Цель. Проанализировать современные проблемы правового регулирования предвы- борной агитации в сети Интернет и выработать рекомендации по совершенствованию соответствующих норм избиратель- ного законодательства. Результаты. Изучено законодатель- ство Российской Федерации, регулирующее различные спо- собы осуществления предвыборной агитации; осуществлен сравнительно-правовой анализ правового регулирования предвыборной агитации в СМИ и в сети Интернет; выявле- ны правовые ограничения и исследованы основные наруше- ния предвыборной агитации в сети Интернет. Заключение. При правовом регулировании политической агитации в сети Интернет важно учитывать особенности распространения ин- формации в глобальном информационном пространстве. Ос- новной целью должно быть поддержание баланса конституци- онно защищаемых ценностей – права на свободные выборы и свободы слова и информации. Распространение агитации в сети Интернет следует выделить в качестве самостоятель- ного предмета правового регулирования, что диктует необхо- димость внесения соответствующих изменений в Закон «Об основных гарантиях…».

Modern Constitutional-Legal Regulation of the Organization and Activity of Presidential Plenipotentiary Envoy to Russia

Introduction. RF President occupies a leading place in the system of Russian power. RF Constitution in art. 80 determines the RF status of the President as head of state, whose responsibilities include security, coordination and control of the most important areas of public administration: the Constitution, the rights and freedoms of man and citizen, the sovereignty of the Russian Federation, its independence and state integrity, coordinated functioning and interaction public authorities. The fundamental tools in the work of the Head of State spoke of his powers to determine the main directions of domestic and foreign policy in accordance with the Constitution and federal laws, as well as the Russian representative in the country and in international relations. For the implementation of competence, the President shall have broad powers laid down in Chapter 4 and other articles of the Basic Law and constitutional law. Thus, the President is entitled to form its own unit, namely the Administration and its member plenipotentiaries (pp. I), k) art. 83 of the Constitution). Purpose. The main objective of the work is theoretical understanding of institute of plenipotentiaries of the Head of the Russian State and to develop practical recommendations to improve regulation and enforcement. Results. It is stated that the establishment of the institute of plenipotentiaries of the President of the Russian Federation is defined unlimited constitutional right of the President and is aimed at the formation mechanism of the implementation of its broad competence. Conclusion. The status is determined by the Plenipotentiary Representative of the Head of State, different legal diversity, it requires legislative harmonization and improvement of law enforcement.

On Mediation and Legal Culture Interconnections

Introduction. Along with other alternative means for dispute settlement the institute of mediation is a feature of a sophisticated civil society, an indicator of high-level legal culture and mature economic exchange, crucial criterion of a democratic development. Meanwhile there is no widespread application of mediative procedures in Russia. Purpose. The goal of the article is to discover and to give theoretical prove to cause-and-effect relation between the development of alternative means for dispute and conflict settlement and the level of the legal culture in the society. Results. Within the methodology of the communicative science the author di scovers the matter of the mediation as a specific type of social relation on the basis of the directed information transfer. Mediation procedures application is aimed on mutually beneficial dispute settlement and is an evidence of sophisticated civil society and state of law. The main function of a mediator is to settle the conflict by the means of satisfaction of the genuine interests of the both sides. Law implementation and development of modern standard of dispute settlement and wider usage of alternative means for dispute settlement come across the great number of subjective and objective obstacles. In author’s opinion one of such problems is insufficient level of legal culture in Russian society. Conclusion. The author concludes that mediation is a new level of communication between people. Thanks to the mediation, sides of a conflict get an opportunity to be heard and to understand each other genuine needs and interests, which is the only way to reach an accordance. Owing to flexibility and optionality alternative means for dispute settlement permit to work out the most adequate conflict judgement and thus promote partner relations, develop the standard of pacific and independent settlement of conflicts by the subjects of the civil circulation. Extent to which prevalence and efficiency of the mediation has spread is a criterion of social maturity and citizens’ readiness to take personal responsibility. 

Issues Turnover of Cultural Property as an Object of Intellectual Property

Introduction. When considering the cultural values as the object of intellectual property is revealed a number of contentious issues arising, in particular, of the shortcomings of civil-legal regulation of their turnover. Purpose. The main purpose is to identify these problems and rationale to resolve conflicts between the provisions of civil law. Results. The right to disclosure of a work in the system of copyright, implies, in particular, and the displaying of cultural values. In the legislation there is no clear definition of «image (playback) of objects of culture and cultural heritage», the question of the legality of the use of cultural values of images without obtaining permission is analyzed. Conclusion. The authors identified a conflict between the provisions of the Federal Law «On the Museum Fund of the Russian Federation and museums in the Russian Federation», establishing the obligation for all parties permission to use images of cultural values and the provisions of the Civil Code, allows free use of such images. Substantiated proposal for its elimination.

The Legal Status of the Legislature in the Mechanism of Implementation of the External Functions of the State

Introduction. Analysis of the current Russian legislation shows that the system of bodies of external functions of the state and the bases of their legal status laid down primarily in the Constitution. Further the right to regulate the status in the current legislation (laws and regulations) stipulating the competence of the various actors in the interaction with foreign states and international organizations. In the Russian Federation adopted legislation that reflects the status of an organ in the implementation of foreign policy, which entails, for example, the problems of differentiation of powers between the Russian President and the Russian Government in the administrative-political sphere. The Constitution of the Russian Federation of powers on implementation of the foreign policy functions of the state vests legislative authority in the country, the President of the Russian Federation, the Government of the Russian Federation. The nature and content of such powers is largely determined by the purpose of these bodies in a mechanism of the Russian State. Purpose. The main purpose of this work is the theoretical understanding of the legal framework of participation of the legislative branch of the government in the process of realization of external functions of the state in support of the idea of the need to clarify the place and role of legislative bodies in the mechanism of implementation of the external functions of the state, their legal status. Results. It is stated that the Rules of the Federation Council and the State Duma Regulations do not fully settle the questions of participation of chambers of the Federal Assembly in the foreign policy of states and international cooperation. It is in these acts should establish procedural rules and to present a detailed mechanism of implementation of powers of these authorities the legislature in the field of foreign policy. Conclusion. The State Duma and the Federation Council have considerable power in the implementation of the external functions of the state, capable and have a significant impact on the mechanism of realization of external functions of the state. However, the legal framework of their activities on issues of foreign policy require detail and perfection.

Development of Electoral Legislation on Secret Ballot in Pre-Revolutionary and Soviet Russia

Introduction. The electoral legislation of the Russian state at various stages of its development enshrines the open or secret ballot in elections to bodies of state authority and local self-government. Purpose. The main purpose is to analyze the development of the electoral legislation of the secret ballot in pre-revolutionary Russia and throughout the Soviet period. Results. Legal consolidation of the principle of the secret ballot took place in pre-revolutionary Russia. During the first decade of the Soviet power voting was conducted openly, even in the case of an alternate consolidation of the secret ballot in the legal acts which regulated the conduct of elections to the councils. Further development of the secret ballot in the Soviet Russia is characterized by progressive democratic legislation and politicized practice of its implementation. Implementation of the secret ballot in the election practice of the USSR began in the last years of perestroika. Conclusion. The author suggests a periodization of the main stages of the development of electoral legislation on secret ballot in pre-revolutionary Russia and throughout the Soviet period.

Practice as a Compulsory Element of the Educational Process at University: the Problems of Normative Support

Introduction. This article discusses the topical questions which are connected with the organization and practice in the educational organization of higher education. The article focuses on problematic issues of normative support of the practice as a compulsory element of the educational process in Higher Education Institution. Purpose. The main goal of the article is to study student practice in Higher Education Institution from the point of view of the analysis of normative regulation of its content and results. Results. The authors analyzed the normative legal base in Russia regulating the characteristics of the organization and conduct of practice at University, peculiarities of practical training of students in local acts of some educational institutions of higher education.The article shows the correlation of normative regulation at the federal level and the level of local acts of universities, authors highlighted the main directions of their inconsistency. Conclusion. The authors come to conclusion that the system of Russian higher education has some problems. These problems are caused by the contradiction between the current federal regulatory framework in the sphere of the organization and conduct of practices in the educational institutions of higher education and the level of legal regulation of this element of the educational process in local acts of universities.

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