Law

Problems of Criminalistic Evaluation of the Place of Accidents as Object of Diagnostic Forensically-Ballistic Expert Research

Introduction. When investigating crimes committed with the use of small arms and gas barreled weapons, it is often necessary to carry out expert studies of not only individual objects (weapons, cartridges, traces of their operation), but also the material situation of the scene as a whole. Theoretical analysis. The problem of forensic assessment of the scene of an accident as an object of scientific and practical cognition is examined through analysis of the existing in forensic knowledge of the essence of expert research at the scene and expert studies of the scene of the incident. It is established that the concepts “expert investigations at the scene” and “expert investigations of the scene” are used in a variety of ways. In solving scientific and practical problems, the possibility of their application is determined by the specific situation that develops in the course of the investigation of the crime, the organizational and methodological necessity of providing expert research. Based on the definition of the conformity of the category “material situation of the scene” to the essence of the methodology of cognition of such objects, the relationship between the concepts “scene of the accident” and “material situation of the scene”, it was concluded that in a number of cases the entire set of available information on the scene of the incident, including its material situation, for solving problems of situational order. Empirical analysis. The case of expert practice cited in the work illustrates the advisability of using an expanded list of forensically significant information about the scene of events to establish the event side of the crime under investigation. Results. The possibility of examining as the object of a diagnostic forensic-ballistic expert study not only the material situation of the scene, but also the site of the incident itself, the volume of criminally significant information of which can be expressed by the formula “material situation of the scene +” is proved. The expediency of distinguishing such a group of objects of expert research determines the cases of establishing the event party of the crime being investigated, when for an expert decision of the issue information is needed not only about the material situation of the scene, but also other forensically significant information.

Effective Project Finance System: Principles and Practices

Introduction. Russian economic acceleration, innovative and digital economy establishment and development requires an increase in investment challenged to high technology sectors. Successful achievement of this objective defines finding the investments attraction mechanism. One of them is the project finance, which is a modern investment instrument in high-risk environments. Increasing importance of project finance implies a more detailed exploration of its mechanism, application characters in current Russian conditions. Theoretical analysis. The content, signs and background to use project finance was analyzed. It was shown that project finance is the riskiest investments attraction model, which defines the creation and use of effective risk management system. Project finance advantages and disadvantages for its participants in comparison with the other investments attraction methods were found. Empirical analysis. Valuation, industrial and regional structure of global and Russian project finance markets were submitted, their main development trends were identified. Results. Project finance is a modern effective investments attraction model in high-risk environments. It was considered that its effectiveness largely depends on right purpose, its relationship with development strategy, project realization specificities accounting on various stages of project life cycle, project company activity, development finance institutions, government regulation methods. Main directions of project finance improvement in Russian economy based on development trends of global project finance market were revealed. It was shown that project finance mechanism should be applied for realization of not only investment projects, but innovative as well.

Constitutional Law of Military Servicemen for Housing: Questions of Legal Regulation and Implementation

Introduction. Military personnel belongs to the category of citizens to whom granting premises by the state is guaranteed. Guarantees of the housing rights of the military personnel are caused by their special status.In this article, the author focuses on the special status of servicemen and the realization of their right to housing. Discussion. Special legal status of the military personnel means legislative restriction of some of their rights and freedoms and also granting additional measures of social support. One of the most significant for the serviceman and members of his family of the social and economic rights can call the right for provision of housing.The examines some aspects of the legal regulation of housing rights of servicemen, examines the specifics of the realization of such rights. Within the framework of this article, the main problems of implementation practice in this area are formulated. Conclusion. The article analyzes the constitutional right of citizens to housing, the specifics of its implementation with regard to servicemen, examines some problems and contradictions in the legal regulation in this sphere.

The Restrictions and the Bans Connected with Implementation of Powers of the Judge

Introduction. In article the requirements to judges and also to candidates for the judge’s position provided by the current legislation of the Russian Federation are considered. Similar requirements inherently represent the system of restrictions of constitutional rights of the person and citizen. Theoretical analysis. The analysis of the current legislation allows to draw a conclusion that requirements imposed to the judge represent the bans connected with acquisition of legal status of the judge, and requirements imposed to candidates for the judge’s position – restrictions. Empirical analysis consisting in the analysis law-enforcement and, in particular, jurisprudence has allowed to draw a conclusion that restrictions have to extend not only to candidates for judges, but also to effective judges and also judges in resignation. In other words, not observance of restrictions has to be considered not only as the basis for refusal in appointment to the post, but also as the basis of dismissal of the judge. Results. The conducted research allows to draw a conclusion, on need to enter into the Law on the status of judges the standard terms of restriction and the bans in the legislation on anti-corruption connected with implementation of certain types of public professional activity.

The Concept and the Content of the Constitutional Principle of Equality of Rights and Freedoms of Man and Citizen, Regardless of Attitudes towards Religion

Introduction. The article is devoted to the consideration of the essence of the constitutional principle of equality of rights and freedoms of a person and a citizen regardless of their attitude to religion. Discussion. The author of the article made an attempt to determine the legal nature of the constitutional principle of equality of rights and freedoms of man and citizen, regardless of their attitude to religion, to define. The criterion of discrimination is “attitude to religion”. The interrelation between the principle of equality of human and civil rights and freedoms is established, regardless of the attitude to religion and freedom of religion. The author justified the difference of discrimination on the basis of “attitude to religion” from other forms of discrimination. Conclusion. The definition of the principle of equality of rights and freedoms of man and citizen regardless of the attitude to religion is given. The structure, features of the principle of equality of rights and freedoms of a person and a citizen, regardless of their attitude to religion, are analyzed. The author determines the content of the principle of equality of rights and freedoms of man and citizen, regardless of their attitude to religion.

Information Support of Public Control in the Russian Federation: System and Legal Analysis

Introduction. This article deals with issues related to the study of the role and importance of information in the system of public control. The studies the features of the regulatory and legal consolidation of information support for public control activities, including focusing on the main areas of information exchange between subjects and objects of the type of control under consideration. Purpose. The main purpose of the work is to study the role and place of information in the process of organization and implementation of public control. Results. Analyzed the Russian regulatory and legal framework governing issues related to information support for public control activities. Shows the practical implementation of the principles of openness and publicity in the process of functioning as subjects of public control, and its objects. Particular attention is paid to researching the legal provision of access to information on the activities of public authorities, identifying its main areas, such as the organization of official websites, state information resources, the provision of official information on the requests of citizens and organizations, access to meetings of public authorities, etc. Сonclusion. The present time the necessary regulatory and legal framework has been created in the Russian Federation that provides information openness to public authorities, which is considered to be the most important and one of the main conditions for the implementation of public control. However, in a number of cases there are violations of the requirements of the current legislation, which is most often manifested in the sphere of organization of work of official websites of public authorities, and therefore additional monitoring of the compliance of the organizational and regulatory components of access to information is required.

Further Discussion about the Purpose of the Law According to the Views of R. Ihering

Introduction. The eminent German jurist Rudolf von Ihering is the founder of the realistic doctrine of law and the state, the essence of which is to find a balance between “broad” legal thinking and normative. Therefore, the urgency and practical significance of the realistic theory of law, which at the present stage needs continuity and reproduction in the context of the study of the “goal” in law as a phylosophical-legal category, is not accidental. Purpose. The main purpose of the work is to continue theoretical understanding of the realistic postulate: the goal is the creative power of the whole law, that there is no legal position that would not be due to the origin of any goal. Results. It is stated that the ultimate goal of law is not to exclude the possibility of formal arbitrariness, but in the implementation of justice, for the practical purpose of justice is the equality of subjects of law. The right is to ensure the living conditions of society in the form of coercion. Conclusion. To the external form of manifestation and realization of law, the internal content conditioned by the goal-the life conditions of society-is attached. The purpose of law is to outline the meaning of law in the whole “organism” of society.​

The Person and Citizen Rights and Freedoms Restriction in the Conditions of the Martial Law in the Russian Federation

Introduction. Two modes of implementation of the government – ordinary (usual) and extraordinary are fixed in constitutions of the states (special legal, extraordinary). The basis for introduction of the extraordinary mode is internal or external threat to the constitutional system of the state, to existence of the state. The purpose of introduction of the extraordinary mode is restoration of the constitutional law and order. A necessary element of the extraordinary mode is establishment of restrictions of the rights and personal freedoms. The constitution of the Russian Federation provides 1993 two types of a particular legal regime – state of emergency and the martial law. Purpose. The purpose of article is the analysis of the constitutional and legislative norms regulating restriction of the rights of the peXrsonality in the conditions of the martial law, and research of specifics of restrictions of the rights and freedoms of the person and citizen entered into the period of action of the martial law. Results. The analysis of the constitutional legislation allows revealing specific signs of restrictions of the rights of the personality in the conditions of the martial law. These restrictions: are entered for ensuring defense of the country and safety of the state; are additional in relation to already operating restrictions (basic); are the simplest types of restrictions – restrictions ban; are temporary; operate only on a certain territory. Conclusion. The conclusion that the restrictions of the rights and freedoms of the person and the citizen applied in the conditions of the martial law allow to expand powers of government bodies is drawn and in this sense, they are one of the tools allowing to reflect aggression and to restore the constitutional law and order. The constitutional legislation rather in detail regulates possibility of application of restrictions of the rights and freedoms in the conditions of the martial law.

РОЛЬ ПРЕЗИДЕНТА ПО ОХРАНЕ СУВЕРЕНИТЕТА, НЕЗАВИСИМОСТИ И ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЙ ЦЕЛОСТНОСТИ В ЗАРУБЕЖНЫХ СТРАНАХ

Введение. Обеспечение суверенитета, независимости и го- сударственной целостности является одним из направлений деятельности любого государства, поскольку непосредственно связано с его существованием и назначением. Реализация дан- ного направления осуществляется посредством слаженной рабо- ты всех органов государственной власти, возглавляемой главой государства. В странах с республиканской формой правления главой государства признается президент. Функции и объем полномочий президента в сфере охраны суверенитета, независи- мости и государственной целостности зависят от разновидности республиканской формы правления. Цель. Основная цель рабо- ты состоит в анализе роли и полномочий президента по охране суверенитета, независимости и государственной целостности в зависимости от формы правления. Результаты. Подтверждает- ся, что в зависимости от формы правления полномочия прези- дента по охране суверенитета, независимости и государственной целостности имеют существенные различия, но при этом присут- ствуют общие для всех государств полномочия. Заключение. Полномочия президента по охране суверенитета, независимости и государственной целостности зависят от места президента в системе органов государственной власти. В республиках с президентской или смешанной формами правления президент обладает значительным объемом полномочий в сфере охраны суверенитета, независимости и государственной целостности. В парламентской республике полномочия президента фактически носят формальный и репрезентативный характер, а реальное управление государством и обеспечение его суверенитета, не- зависимости и государственной целостности находится в руках исполнительной власти.

УГОЛОВНО-ПРАВОВАЯ ЗАЩИТА ЗАКОННОЙ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЙ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ ЖУРНАЛИСТОВ: ВОПРОСЫ ТЕОРИИ И ПРАКТИКИ

Введение. В условиях развития информационного общества средства массовой информации выполняют ряд социально значимых функций. Этим обусловлено предоставление госу- дарственно-правовых гарантий деятельности СМИ и журна- листов. Одной из таких гарантий является ответственность за воспрепятствование законной профессиональной деятельно- сти журналистов. Цель. Целью статьи является анализ норм уголовного законодательства, устанавливающего ответствен- ность за воспрепятствование законной профессиональной де- ятельности журналистов, отдельных норм законов, регламен- тирующих деятельность по производству и распространению массовой информации, а также основных научных и научно- практических трактовок диспозиции ст. 144 УК РФ. Резуль- таты. Системное рассмотрение понятия «воспрепятствова- ние законной профессиональной деятельности журналистов» приводит к выводу, что недостатком анализируемой статьи является указание только на одну форму воспрепятствова- ния законной профессиональной деятельности журналиста, в то время как нападения на журналистов происходят на на- чальных этапах подготовки информационных материалов. Другим недостатком данной статьи является указание только на одного субъекта массово-информационной деятельности – журналиста. В то же время в ст. 58 Закона РФ «О средствах массовой информации» в качестве субъектов, за воспрепят- ствование деятельности которых должна быть предусмотрена ответственность, указываются учредители, редакции, издате- ли и распространители продукции средства массовой инфор- мации; в российском законодательстве к субъектам, участву- ющим в создании и распространении массовой информации относятся также владельцы сайта в сети Интернет, органи- заторы распространения информации. Воспрепятствование законной деятельности по производству и распространению массовой информации указанных выше субъектов, сопряжен- ное с физическим или психическим принуждением их к рас- пространению либо отказу от распространения информации, представляет не меньшую общественную опасность, чем те же действия, обращенные к журналистам. Заключение. Дела- ется вывод о том, что правовая неопределенность диспозиции ст. 144 УК РФ сказывается на судебной практике применения указанной статьи. Высказываются предложения по изменению формулировки диспозиции данной статьи, направленные на устранение выявленных недостатков.

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