Management

To the Issue of Mathematical Modeling of Process of Functioning of the Instrument-making Enterprise when Usingthe Experimental Data of its Activities

Introduction. Automation control instrument-making enterprise (PP) relies not only on the introduction in its composition of technical means and computing devices, but also on the mathematical model of its production and economic activity. For further development and expansion of modeling capabilities to reduce oscillatory (instability) of the production process, in article we propose to combine the approach based on the use of the principles and methodology of the theory of automatic control (TAU) used in the creation of the virtual process control system of production of similar products of the enterprise instrument and the mathematical description of the dynamics of production activities, PP. Theoretical analysis. To the present time developed structural scheme of enterprise’s activity, based on the above theory, one of the key principles is the principle of backward linkages that improve the quality of management, efficiency of management decisions and thus the sustainability of production of the company. Obtained and the corresponding mathematical models, illustrating structural diagrams. However, there remains a need for further development of the mathematical interpretation of feedback reflecting the influence of the latter on the sustainability and stability of production process PP. Methods. Mathematical model PP without automated control systems, i.e. naturally without the introduction of feedback, the article claims correspond with an open loop control (PSC). Accordingly, a continuous mathematical model of PP with feedback loop reflects the PP with a closed control circuit (FOD). For him mathematical model of the production unit (PSU) corresponds to the PP model, obtained experimentally. As a model production unit PSC adopted model derived from real data of production activities of one of the claims of Saratov. Results. In article the mathematical model of the functioning of the claims covered by the feedback control, i.e. closed the instrument-making enterprise (RFP). They are reduced to normal form of differential equations assigned to them and the coefficients of the feedback and other parameters. Further these equations are presented in the form convenient for the solution in the Mathcad program produced and mathematical modeling. For comparison is given also the simulation of the original RFP, in which the algorithms are given positive and negative feedback (control). It was shown that these control algorithms do not eliminate fluctuations in the production process. Was subject to adjustment in the coefficients of the control algorithms, PP. It is shown that when negative feedback is increased and when the transmission coefficient of the feedback loop, the oscillatory (the ratio of the amplitude of the oscillatory component of the process to its systematic, relatively permanent component) is affected to a lesser extent on the work of the PP, due to the structure of mathematical model of work of the RFP. Conclusions. Proposed approach allowed the modeling of the production activity of PP under different settings and conditions in feedback control loop and to find their optimal values.

Economic Aspects of Damage Determination from Agricultural Lands Non-targeted Use

Introduction. The article deals with the problem of agricultural land non-targeted use and the damage determination. The purpose of research – to improve the calculating methods of the damage value caused by agricultural land inappropriate use. Objectives: to determine the size non-targeted use in the years 2009–2013 under the Samara region; to analyze the dependence of the damage size caused by territorial location; formulate a particular calculating method at the levels of «enterprise» and «municipal district-region».

Empirical analysis. The study found that non-target use sizes are constantly increasing. Placing objects on the territory of the region does not depend on the profitability of agricultural land, as agricultural production is less competitive compared to the extractive industries. In determining the loss size must be taken into account features of their formation over time, which depends on the type of damage source.

Results. In the reporting period, the damage amount is constantly growing, which is associated with the mining companies expansion. If in 2009 was built 50 wells for various purposes, in 2013 – 236. Direct dependency on the damage size caused by the territory placement have not been identified.

Approaches to the Methodology for Assessing the Contribution of the University in the Innovative Development of the Region

Introduction. Strengthening the role of universities in regional development is determined by the relevance of the studies to identify the direction of the impact of the university on the region, as well as to assess how effective are the results of the impact of regional development.

Theoretical analysis. To identify and assess the role of universities in regional development in the foreign studies used different models to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the contribution of universities to social and economic development of the regions and innovative.

Methodology of the study. The development of a methodology for assessing the contribution of the university in the innovative development of the region involves determining approaches to setting trends, the degree of time and the impact of changes in the environment of the object of its operation. Evaluation of the contribution of the university in the innovative development of the region – an assessment of the impact of its dynamics on change in the functional structure of the region.

Results. Rate the university’s contribution to the innovative development of the region on a functional approach proposed by the following parameters: the presence of knowledge economy in the functional structure of the regional economy; its share, the nature of the interactions functionally organized units of the regional economy, the presence/absence of innovation rents; the level of innovative competitiveness of the regional economy. Drafted assessment will determine the presence and nature of the contribution (positive/negative effect) University in the innovative development of the region.

Investment Portfolio Risk Assessment on the Basis of Hierarchical Model

Introduction. Efficiency of investments is an important factor at the micro- and macroanalysis of economy, investment in venture capital depends on the development of firms, regions, States. Especially actual this problem for portfolio investment. The aim of this work is to develop a new minimax method for modeling the dynamics of risk of portfolio investment, which allows to assess the distribution of equity is a structural component of a financial portfolio.

Methods. Suggested new method for modeling and rationalizing the structure of equity investments using the minimax criterion. Drill through the decision of the investor as from the original portfolio preferences, specific risk assessments for each lower level in the hierarchy (topdown) and a calculation of expediency of inclusion in the portfolio of each asset of the lower level, with specific risk assessments (bottomup), which is consistent with the approaches of fundamental analysis of securities market. Provided step-by-step algorithm for grouping, clustering and data analysis along the branches of the hierarchy.

Results. Is developed the scheme the implementation of the model for a three-tier structure for complete binary decision tree. Is given the iterative computational algorithm and its implementation.

Conclusion. The recommendations can be applied to rationalize the funding of innovations that improve the quality of development of regions in the rehabilitation plan for selected executives of corporate sector.

External Environment as a Source of Threat for Ecological and Economic Industrial Enterprises Safety

Introduction. The effective use of industrial capacity is the important condition for the national economy sustainable development. Manufacturing organizations can provide their own ecological and economic security only when they take into account the impact of environment objective factors on their activities. The article purpose is an investigation of the exo-environment effect on the formation of the threats for industrial enterprise ecological and economic security on the example of publishing and printing companies.

Theoretical analysis. The article considers the definitions and concepts of economic security. It highlights the importance of the environmental component of economic security as it currently dominates. In addition, the author analyzes the features of exo-surroundings industrial enterprise and the relationships there in order to identify the main sources of objective threats. The study was conducted on the example of the impact of the global environment and the state to publishing and printing companies.

Results. From the point of view of increasing of enterprises environmental and economic sustainability it is found that the factors associated with exposure to the external environment are the most significant. Seeing the scale of potential threats from them is large. There are serious difficulties to forecast their occurrence and possible manifestations. As a result, the author concluded about the importance of tool such as a permanent analysis of the environmental and economic security of the organization. This tool provides the basis for strategic management decisions making. Article formulates the basic tasks of business at the decision of environmental and economic security.

Development of Monitoring Tools of Quality of Education for the Third Age

Introduction. The development of educational programs for the third age allows increasing social activity of older people, improving their psycho-physiological condition, increasing physical activity, as well as the level of education for their integration into modern society. Considering that the contingent of students in the education centers of the third age has a rich experience of life, and age-specific changes in health status, it is important to organize a high level of quality of education, select teaching staff in order to implement the educational process. Development of tools for monitoring the quality of educationfor the third age will solve this problem.

Methods. Monitoring the quality of education traditionally is based on the process approach. Its characteristic is the of planning parameters and indicators of processes, availability of resources, the implementation of measures to achieve the planned monitoring and measurement of processes, and analysis of processes for efficiency. Instrumentation for monitoring the quality of the organization of training includes three components: first, an array of background information, formed by a set of current forms of operational and statistical observation; second, the methodology for calculating and summarizing monitoring indicators; third, the analysis methodology for set of indicators to assess the quality of education.

Results. The result of the study is a system of indicators of the quality of education for the third age (at the Training Center of Samara State Technical University for Third Age), which is built in a hierarchical manner, reflecting the quality of education in the context of the individual subsystems. As the top-level of hierarchy appears comprehensive consolidated indicator.

Formation and Development of Innovative Systems of the EAEC Clustering Based Economy

Introduction. In modern conditions, determine the dynamics of innovation for economic growth and the place that occupied the country and the various unions in the global community. On the implementation of tasks to ensure the technical and technological modernization of the economies of the Eurasian Economic Union directed the formation of innovative systems based on the cluster approach.

Theoretical analysis. The cluster approach allows the use of the capacities of all countries-participants of the Eurasian Economic Union in the innovation process and the translation of their economies on the path of innovative development.

Discussion of results. The required level of interaction between members of the cluster can be achieved through the organization able to generate, transmit and coordinate innovation across the designated areas. As an organization at supranational level are encouraged to use high technology center and at the meso level is necessary to create a structure that will work with the high-tech center. With regard to the infrastructure of the Saratov region such as the organization proposed the establishment in the form of a municipal enterprise under the administration of the city of regional technological Chamber, which will promote the development of innovation systems of the countriesparticipants of the Eurasian Economic Union.

On Improvement of Taxation of Small and Medium Business

Introduction. The socio-economic situation in the country is largely dependent on the level of development of small and medium-sized businesses. In turn, the effectivenessof the small and medium business is dependent on the tax system of the country.

Theoretical analysis. This article discusses the changes made to the legislation on small and medium business in the 2015 year affecting criteria chargeability to small and medium businesses, the income limit for legal entities and individual entrepreneurs, and participation in the share capital of other entities. Analysis of special tax regimes was carried out on the basis of the characteristics of taxation elements in the transformation of the tax legislation.

Discussion of results. The study revealed some features of the application of special tax regimes in terms of improvement of the legislation on taxes and fees, as well as legislation regulating the operation of small and medium businesses

Research of Formation and Use of the Municipal Budget Ufa

Introduction. In the current crisis conditions decline in growth receipt of incomes to local budgets is felt stronger in comparison with the previous year. In relation to this fact it is necessary to mobilise all reserves for local budget extension. Local budgets are one of Russian consolidated budget elements. Nowadays in Russian Federation the role of local government authorities is increasing in economic and cultural construction. They acquired significant rights in the management area of economic, social and cultural construction on a catchment area. For assigned obligations completion the resources are needed, in particular, by way of different inpayment to municipal organisations budgets. Therefore, this research including structural characteristics of Ufa budget analysis, determination of reserves for municipal budget extension increase and extraction of budget outcomes priority directions, is particularly topical. Results of research. Based on economics and statistics methods budget incomes and outcomes of Ufa for the period of 2007–2013 were analysed. The analysis carried out shows that the central problem is the problem of the municipal budget extension, especially in terms of tax and non-tax proceeding. The insufficient social orientation of the municipal budget is concluded. In particular, from 2009, a significant decrease in public health service outcomes was observed, by 15% in average annually. In spite of the fact that Ufa is in the list of cities with high level of environment pollution, outcomes on ecology are insufficient, being an extremely negative factor. Conclusions. In the conclusion, the Ufa budget optimization suggestions were formulated. Disadvantages of change-over to programming method of budgeting were emphasized, a subjectiveness of budget outcomes priority directions was determined. The closed character of information on budget outcomes is also one of the central problems, that makes an estimation of budget outcomes effectiveness more difficult.

Cognitive Modeling the Impact of a Regional System of Higher Education in the Innovative Development of the Region

Introduction. To find the most effective management tools for interaction of regional higher education and regional innovation system to analyze their mutual influence through cognitive analysis. Theoretical analysis. To assess the role of regional institutions of higher education in regional development in the foreign studies used different models to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the contribution of universities to social and economic innovative development of the region. Empirical analysis. It is obvious that the education system and innovation system linked at the regional level. To construct the initial cognitive map, a model that reflects the current state of the education system and the regional innovation system and their influence on the innovative development of the region, used indicators of educational activities, research and innovation, human resource development, international activities, infrastructure, employment of university graduates, financial indicators. Results. Tools cognitive modeling can simulate the effects of decisions made on the interaction of all the actors of the regional innovation system: government, science and business at the regional level, and lays the foundation for the efficient use of the capacity of higher education institutions in promoting opportunities to promote regional development.

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