Economic

The Relationship and Interdependence of Convergence and Integration in the Economy

Introduction. The trend of globalization of the modern economy leads to the increasing relevance of convergence and integration, the relationship and interaction which do not cause doubts. Theoretical analysis. The article discusses the integration and convergence as processes of interaction between homogeneous or heterogeneous elements of different economic systems, which are closely interwoven with each other. Discusses the question of the primacy of processes of integration and convergence. The article presents economic entities of convergent and integration processes, and the levels of their development. Results. Convergence is very similar integration. Their similarity is determined by several aspects, firstly, they are conditioned by the international division of labour, secondly, they represent a form of conjugation of the interests and efforts of business entities in resolving various problems, and third, they represent a homogeneous or heterogeneous interaction of both processes. Ddialectic relationship between convergence and integration is not limited to direct connection «basis – superstructure». The author argues that convergence may act as a necessary condition for integration and its result. Also observed the emergence of new interactive elements of economic convergence and integration at the modern stage of economic development, which are innovative entrepreneurs.
 

Existence`s Institutional Factor of Objects Cultural Heritage as One of the Type Public Goods

Introduction. Maintaining specific type of public goods in the form of cultural heritage property appears to be not only a social and cultural, but also economic problem. This problem is associated with the growth of government spending on the protection and conservation-restoration of cultural heritage objects and the evaluation of the effectiveness of public spending. By supporting these kind of goods, the national identity of economic agents can be provided, strengthening Russia’s national security. Theoretical analysis. The author analyzes the public, merit and wards goods, based on methodology proposed by A. Ya. Rubinshtein, and views one of the public goods type’s specificity – objects of cultural heritage. On the basis of the economic and psychological methodology the role of cultural heritage property is explained in the formation of economic agents’ national identity at the micro, meso and macro levels. Empirical analysis. State institutions, which ensure the preservation of cultural heritage, are needed to be optimized in future, for the purpose of improving their efficiency. Results. The concludes that the preservation of cultural heritage objects determines the necessity of the state institutions’ effective functioning, which provides the national orientation of economic agents. The need of participation of non-governmental organizations in the conservation of cultural heritage as a specific type of public goods is being well-founded.

Credit Market: the Problems, Contradictions and Potential for Growth

Introduction. In the present state of the domestic economy, where there is a stable manifestation of stagflation processes will inevitably have to deal with problems in the field of credit and the banking system. At the same time it is the real situation in those areas of financial activity depend largely on the prospects and potential for economic growth. Therefore, the study of the conditions in which this activity takes place, and the search for reserves to strengthen the positions of banks in the market today are the urgent tasks. Theoretical analysis. Evidence suggests that the pace of development of the microfinance sector lending rates significantly higher than those characterizing our banking system that is actually in a state of decline. Despite the leading position of this sector, there is the intersection of the activities of microfinance institutions and banks in consumer lending, which determines the need to examine product offerings of these organizations in the field of microcredit. Results. The study revealed the existence of the competitive advantages of the banking system in mikropotrebkreditovaniya and available as a result of this potential increase in the volume of lending by the banking sector, which in the implementation of these advantages in practice will improve forecasts and prospects for its development. Conclusions. The list of measures for elimination of the banking system of stagnant and the pre-crisis status must include measures to educate potential borrowers about the competitive advantages of banking products, which should lead to an increase in the influx of customers for loans to banks, and thus to improve the financial condition of the latter, subject to competent credit policy.

The State Support of Small Business: Myth or Reality?

Introduction. Small business development has become one of the priorities of the economic policy of the country. This article led to the location and role of small business in today’s economy. Theoretical analysis. Small business is the locomotive of the economy of the country, it is a great force. Periodically creates favorable conditions for the prosperity of small businesses. The problem of building up this sector of the economy raised the authorities at all levels of management, and therefore reflected the changing regulatory framework. The purpose of the article is a study of the principles and methods of the State support of small business in Russia. Article is based on a dialectic-materialistic method, which includes historical and logical methods of cognition, the method of ascent from the abstract to the concrete. Results. Specifics and particularly significant problems of small business. Investigated the institutional aspects and the mechanism of realization of the State support of small business development. Main findings enrich the theory of government regulation of small business development and allow you to generate effective tools for implementing a system of State support for small entrepreneurship with a view to sustainable development.

Problems and Prospectsventure Investment Developments of Territorial Educations

Development of the innovative projects which are carried out on the basis of the knowledge-intensive hi-tech enterprises considering the existing and potential advantages of the region is necessary for successful development of territorial educations. Implementation of innovative projects on development of territorial educations in many respects depends on quality and existence of labor, material, financial, investment and other resources. Complexity and objectivity of an assessment of potential of innovative development of territorial educations influences quality of the developed innovative projects, and also efficiency of their realization. Instruments of research. As instruments of research analytical and research devices, and also the instrument of verbal modeling of economic processes are used. Results. Models of direct and indirect state support of venture investment funds are developed: model of direct state investments in venture investment funds by means of private general partners for the purpose of development of territorial educations; model of support by the state of venture investment funds through compensation of the suffered losses for the purpose of development of territorial educations; model of support by the state of private venture investors on granting options for the purpose of development of territorial educations; model of support by the state of foreign and domestic venture investors through granting tax privileges for the purpose of development of territorial educations.

Assessment of Food Security Level of Territories on the Basis of the Analysis of Self-reliance of the Population the Main Products

The modern economy of import substitution caused need of an assessment of potential opportunities of certain territories for achievement of goals which is able to allow authorities of all levels to take measures of the stimulating character in time. Relevance gets strengthening of food security in respect of independence of the territory of import deliveries of food. Theoretical analysis. In work mathematical and economic methods of research which in a combination allow to make more accurate classification of territories by the level of food security are used. Indicator of self-reliance of the municipal area the main products in work the main criterion of food security of the territory. The analysis of dynamics of an indicator for a row of years allows to create projection of level of food security of municipal areas that will allow municipal governing bodies within the powers in due time to undertake the measures directed on prevention of internal threats of food security. Results.The technique of an assessment of level of food security of territories is used for the analysis of production and consumption of the main products in certain municipal regions of the Saratov region. The problem of dependence on import of the main products for the majority of the studied areas is as a result noted.

Generation and Reproduction of Institutional Innovation

Introduction. Generation and development of institutional innovation is today one of the primatial tasks in economic development.

Theoretical analysis. The subject of scientific analysis is institutional innovation, understood as the rules of the functioning of formal and informal institutions, as well as in the relationship between the institutions. Institutional innovations are an important element of the concomitant formation of an innovative economy. The purpose of work – to reveal the content and features of the implementation of institutional innovations in different areas and countries.

Results. The features of the institutional environment, which determines the scope of the interaction of economic agents. Revealed sources and mechanism of institutional change. It determines the value of institutional innovations in the functioning of the economy. Need search tools allow you to control the economic development of the institutional innovation structures in order to achieve maximum economic results.

ЭКОНОМЕТРИЧЕСКИЕ ПОДХОДЫ К ОЦЕНИВАНИЮ КРЕДИТНОГО ПОВЕДЕНИЯ НАСЕЛЕНИЯ В РОССИИ

Introduction. Crediting of people has a firm position in last decade, but now there is a problem of the granted loans quality. So the study of the credit behavior, its mechanisms and structures is actual question. In article emphasis was placed on the methodological part of the problem, it was examined various statistical and econometric tools to study of the credit behavior.

Methods. Using binary choice model determinants of credit behavior were identified, and a typical portrait of average borrower was made. Using cluster analysis the volume of consumer loans by region was investigated. By using time series analysis for the volume of granted loans SARIMA-model and forecast was estimated.

Results. The most important determinants of credit behavior are age, sex, level of education, income, the loan experience in the past, the number of income sources. As a result of the cluster analysis Russian regions were divided into three homogenous groups that differ in terms of granted loans, the number of credit institutions, payable on the granted loans. Forecast of the volume of granted loans has shown that the volume of loans will continue to have a positive trend, despite the economic crisis.

Value Aspects of Modernization of the Economy in the Socio-economic Project of I. T. Pososhkov

Introduction. The studying of the I. T. Pososhkov theory began in the 30s of the XIX century. It was characterized by the specificity of the experience which had our country during this historical period and by the originality of approaches, which were used by the researchers of Pososhkov’s heritage.

Theoretical analysis. The theoretical position of I. T. Pososhkov was formed by his close and meaningful dialogue with the representatives of the higher clergy and the political and economic elite of Russia during the reign of Peter The Great. The people, who communicated with the thinker, formed a priority understanding of spiritual and moral values in the process of socio-economic reformation in Russia at the beginning of the XVIII century.

Results. The methodology of institutionalism and «real» political economy helps to reveal the role of the value aspects of the modernization of the economy in the socio-economic project of I. T. Pososhkov.

Food Security in the New Risks: Development of Methods of Strategic Planning

Introduction. In modern conditions the functioning of the national food market especially important to improve methods of strategic planning aimed at sustainable development of agri-food complex.

Methods. Among the economic methods of strategic planning the most in demand balance, regulatory and program-target method. The article suggests the direction of development of each of these methods. According to the program-target method – strengthening the integrated approach and the social orientation of the formation of the parameters of the State program of agricultural development and regulation of agricultural products, raw materials and food. On balance method – the use of the modified model of interbranch balance agricultural complex, which allows to coordinate the parameters of incomes of the population in the context of social and family groups, the personal consumption of basic foodstuffs with the volume of production of agricultural products and food imports.

Empirical Analysis. The basic trends in the sphere of food consumption, a comprehensive analysis is based on two sources of information: a study of the main parameters of food consumption using statistical data of Rosstat; summary of the results of a sociological survey that was conducted in IAgP RAS in Saratov region.

Results. The result of a comprehensive study of the scope of food consumption is a study ways to improve methods of strategic planning of development of agribusiness in the global socio-economic instability.

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