Economic

Social Development and Taxation: Correlation and Interdependence

Introduction. Social orientation of Russia means that it is the state’s responsibility to provide an efficient system of social welfare and state guarantees as well as establish proper legal regulation of the social sphere. Thus, it is especially important to conduct research aimed at revealing the relationship and interdependence between social policy and taxation. Theoretical analysis. The article presents and proves a hypothesis that there is a direct correlation between the level of social development and taxation system efficiency. The author suggests an original methodology for calculating taxes for companies and organizations involved in the social sector or providing social services. Empirical analysis. The hypothesis of tax incentives as the most relevant and effective way to support socially significant social sphere in Russia. According to the author, this problem can be solved by implementing a policy of low taxes, flexible changes in the level of tax burden and individual tax rates in the pre-specified range, the wider use of tax incentives system. Results. The paper clarifies the content of the concept of «social services»; reveals the necessity of legal and regulatory definition of «socially important sphere» and establishing a normative body of rules governing financial relations arising in the social sphere; presents an original approach to the interpretation of the concept of «social sphere» and regulation of the social sphere from the perspective of financial resources allocation; clarifies the definition of social sphere and social organizations providing social services; identifies the role of tax incentives in the development of the social sphere; and develops an institutional approach to the description of the correlation between the development of social sphere and taxation by expanding the range of infrastructural elements of the social sphere and taxation system.

Problematic Issues of Academic Engagement Between Universities and Business

Introduction. National research universities in addition to the functions of education, research, play an integrating role within the ecosystem of innovation, participating in the process of business development. Paramount importance of academic cooperation between universities and enterprises. Theoretical analysis. In the article the problematic issues of academic cooperation between universities and business associated with his assessment: lack of longitudinal information, the validity and comparability of study results is limited. Discussion of results. the Result of research conducted by the author are the proposals to strengthen the study of the process of academic engagement, examine its implications, institutional aspects. Conclusion. Further study of problematic issues of academic cooperation will allow to draw conclusions about which forms to promote and under what conditions they can achieve further academic or economic goals.

Institutional Factors of Competitiveness of the Organization: Concept, Classification, Laws of Relationships

Introduction. Improving the competitiveness of organizations in the context of external challenges and economic crisis is one of the pillars of modern economic strategy of the state. The practice of developed countries shows that the determining condition for improving the competitiveness of organizations is an effective interaction between the various institutions. Hence the problem of the relationship between various institutional factors and their impact on the competitiveness of the organizations are very important. Theoretical analysis. The article discusses various approaches to identifying priority institutional factors affecting the competitiveness of organizations. Results. The author’s interpretation of the concept of «institutional factors», the author’s classification of institutional factors, including providing and blocking factors, the regularities of the relationships between them and shows their influence on the competitiveness of organizations.

Analysis of the Inflation Targeting Policy Effectiveness in the Russian Economy

Introduction. One of the key directions of Russian development is the implementation of monetary policy, capable in case of transparent and clear goal setting, to achieve monetary regulation priorities. Theoretical analysis. The research is conducted on the analysis base of: main indicators of economic development, monetary regulation-experience of foreign countries, and assessment of the opportunities and challenges of policy implementation, selected by the Central Bank, in the context of economic openness. Results. The problem of the effectiveness of monetary policy, changes that affect the inflation in our country, which create new opportunities for development, the features of the activities of the Central Bank in the field of regulation of the economy by means of inflation targeting are scrutinized in this article. Conclusions. According to the results of the analysis concludes the need to substitute the practice of inflation targeting by more modern methods of countering inflation.

Demonstration of Fictitious in Intelligent Goods at the Economy Knowledge

Introduction.Changes in the economic system at the present stage first of all are bound to the changes imposed to the workforce. Currently, the intellectual work, which is characterized by cognition becomes more significant in industrial sector. In this connection, the importance of increased intangible goods, one of which is an intellectual goods run high. The intelligent goods have specific properties, one of which is fictitious. Theoretical analysis. The article contains various definitions of what «knowledge» and «information» are. It also contains the analysis of the features of the process of production of intellectual goods,in the creation of which the main resource is knowledge. Besides, the article contains the main approaches to the definition of «fictitious goods». Results. It is noted that there is a gap between value and the value of intellectual goods. Also noted that while determining the value of these goods comes up some difficulties with assessing the labor by their production. Based on an analysis of different approaches to the concept of «fictitious goods» defined that knowledge has the properties of fictitious and the intellectual goods is a fictitious goods, and that is its main feature.

Financial Literacy of Citizens in the Russian Federation

Introduction. The relevance of the study confirmed a significant public attention, public institutions and individual households to the issue of financial literacy in Russia. To date, it continues to develop technologies to improve the financial literacy of the population. Theoretical analysis. The increase of financial literacy should be facilitated by the system of public policies for the development of financial education system, strengthening the protection of rights of consumers of financial services, increasing their accessibility for citizens. An indispensable condition for the implementation of this policy should be to create sustainable institutions at federal and regional level involved in the program of financial education and public awareness, building assessment system as the level of financial literacy of various categories of citizens and the effectiveness of those measures, which are aimed at its promotion. Empirical Analysis. Based on the analysis of public and private initiatives aimed at increasing the financial literacy of the allocated elements of a comprehensive system of financial education. Results. Analysis to identify possible ways to improve the financial literacy of the population to form a comprehensive model of financial education and awareness.

Academic Value Added in the Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the University

Introduction. Increased interest in the performance of education systems in terms of strengthening the transparency for the state and society form the new tools for assessing the effectiveness based on the concept of the academic added value. Each educational system or institution can be evaluate from the point of view of efficiency of money spent by the state and the quality and scope of knowledge and skills of its graduates. Theoretical analysis. The academic added value can serve as a tool to assess the degree of improvement / strengthening of knowledge, skills and abilities of students in the learning period, the extent of giving them opportunities of critical thinking and reflection on current events and changes, and the ability to learn throughout life. Empirical analysis. Obtained on the basis of academic value-added results provide an opportunity to compare the quality of educational institutions, with different levels of the student body. Results. Academic added value concept reflects the influence of external factors, often not related to the educational process, the level of educational achievements of students, raising more serious questions about the availability and quality of education as a whole, rather than its effectiveness, and makes research in the field of education to move to the assessment of learning outcomes, rather than inputs (especially such as funding and the professional level of the teaching staff).

Fetishization Trends in Contemporary Russian Economy

Introduction. Theoretically and practically it is important to study the relationship a fetish of the economy, as real housekeeping can be improved only by reducing the degree of fetishization of economic relations. The article deals with theoretical approaches to the study of the relationship a fetish and their practical application in the country. Theoretical analysis. Fetishization of the concept of economic science is an attitude about the exaggeration of the role in real-world business processes specific events and the strong dependence of man on this phenomenon. Fetishization exists at all levels of the economy and is characterized by all its subjects. Discussion of results. There is an old form of economic and fetishization of any new forms in the modern Russian economy: the fetishization of investment capital, etc. The yield on the fetishization of government level complicates the work of the latter and makes new ways to implement real economic relations in market conditions. Conclusions. Fetishization of the economy is the objective-subjective, difficult to known and difficult to reduce the impact on the real economic processes. Have economic synergies, cooperation entities provide modern forms of exposure to fetishization of management of the economy.

Mathematical Justification of Economic in the Conditions of Falling of the Country in the «Underdevelopment Trap»

Introduction. Solving problems of technological development of Russia is an important task of formation of an innovative economy. In recent years there has been an intensification of mining operations and sales abroad, which can lead to rapid depletion of resources and the deterioration of the country in the future, but with competent macroeconomic policies, availability of raw materials and export of raw materials can be a major competitive advantage for the country. Theoretical analysis. The article analyzes the innovation of economic growth in terms of increase in production of natural resources, held in the framework of the Solow model, as well as evaluation and justification of the factors that negatively affect the economy. In the developed economic and mathematical model of growth based on the modification of the Solow model with constant saving rate. Discussion of results. In the simulations of the dynamics of technological development and analysis of the effect of the economy falling into the trap of underdevelopment in the lagging economy from the world’s technological leaders. It is proved that exogenous high prices for the resource at low technological level, capacity development and the level of education can lead to greater economic dependence on raw materials factor. With the help of mathematical modeling proved that at consistently high prices, the country will lose its potential for development and the economy will dominate the raw material component, further in the case of a fall in prices for the resource, the majority of investments in the economy again goes into the manufacturing sector, which, however, will have the potential for development insufficient to eliminate the backlog of the economy, may reduce the level of education in the case of inconsistency, which makes the output of the economy at world level impossible.

Socio-economic Factors of Formation of National Identity in the Conditions of Globalization

Introduction. The urgency of the problems of international cooperation associated with the exacerbation of national consciousness, increased tolerance to violations of national equality and distorted media coverage of conflict on a national basis. Theoretical analysis. The purpose of the article – to identify systemically important factors of national identity. The formation of national identity is determined by the spatial characteristics – border areas. Another factor that is closely related to the previous one, is a land. A feature of the above two factors is that they are not affected by the processes of globalization. The formation of national identity is important not only to the role of government, but also state-forming nation. Results. The analysis found that the largest transformational changes are subject to language, culture and economy that make up the framework of the national identity of any state. Therefore, at the highest level should be given to a system of measures and activities to institutionalize the influence of globalization processes and the development of protective mechanisms for the preservation of the most vulnerable places in the formation of national identity.

Pages