Economic

Credit Market: the Problems, Contradictions and Potential for Growth

Introduction. In the present state of the domestic economy, where there is a stable manifestation of stagflation processes will inevitably have to deal with problems in the field of credit and the banking system. At the same time it is the real situation in those areas of financial activity depend largely on the prospects and potential for economic growth. Therefore, the study of the conditions in which this activity takes place, and the search for reserves to strengthen the positions of banks in the market today are the urgent tasks. Theoretical analysis. Evidence suggests that the pace of development of the microfinance sector lending rates significantly higher than those characterizing our banking system that is actually in a state of decline. Despite the leading position of this sector, there is the intersection of the activities of microfinance institutions and banks in consumer lending, which determines the need to examine product offerings of these organizations in the field of microcredit. Results. The study revealed the existence of the competitive advantages of the banking system in mikropotrebkreditovaniya and available as a result of this potential increase in the volume of lending by the banking sector, which in the implementation of these advantages in practice will improve forecasts and prospects for its development. Conclusions. The list of measures for elimination of the banking system of stagnant and the pre-crisis status must include measures to educate potential borrowers about the competitive advantages of banking products, which should lead to an increase in the influx of customers for loans to banks, and thus to improve the financial condition of the latter, subject to competent credit policy.

The State Support of Small Business: Myth or Reality?

Introduction. Small business development has become one of the priorities of the economic policy of the country. This article led to the location and role of small business in today’s economy. Theoretical analysis. Small business is the locomotive of the economy of the country, it is a great force. Periodically creates favorable conditions for the prosperity of small businesses. The problem of building up this sector of the economy raised the authorities at all levels of management, and therefore reflected the changing regulatory framework. The purpose of the article is a study of the principles and methods of the State support of small business in Russia. Article is based on a dialectic-materialistic method, which includes historical and logical methods of cognition, the method of ascent from the abstract to the concrete. Results. Specifics and particularly significant problems of small business. Investigated the institutional aspects and the mechanism of realization of the State support of small business development. Main findings enrich the theory of government regulation of small business development and allow you to generate effective tools for implementing a system of State support for small entrepreneurship with a view to sustainable development.

Problems and Prospectsventure Investment Developments of Territorial Educations

Development of the innovative projects which are carried out on the basis of the knowledge-intensive hi-tech enterprises considering the existing and potential advantages of the region is necessary for successful development of territorial educations. Implementation of innovative projects on development of territorial educations in many respects depends on quality and existence of labor, material, financial, investment and other resources. Complexity and objectivity of an assessment of potential of innovative development of territorial educations influences quality of the developed innovative projects, and also efficiency of their realization. Instruments of research. As instruments of research analytical and research devices, and also the instrument of verbal modeling of economic processes are used. Results. Models of direct and indirect state support of venture investment funds are developed: model of direct state investments in venture investment funds by means of private general partners for the purpose of development of territorial educations; model of support by the state of venture investment funds through compensation of the suffered losses for the purpose of development of territorial educations; model of support by the state of private venture investors on granting options for the purpose of development of territorial educations; model of support by the state of foreign and domestic venture investors through granting tax privileges for the purpose of development of territorial educations.

Assessment of Food Security Level of Territories on the Basis of the Analysis of Self-reliance of the Population the Main Products

The modern economy of import substitution caused need of an assessment of potential opportunities of certain territories for achievement of goals which is able to allow authorities of all levels to take measures of the stimulating character in time. Relevance gets strengthening of food security in respect of independence of the territory of import deliveries of food. Theoretical analysis. In work mathematical and economic methods of research which in a combination allow to make more accurate classification of territories by the level of food security are used. Indicator of self-reliance of the municipal area the main products in work the main criterion of food security of the territory. The analysis of dynamics of an indicator for a row of years allows to create projection of level of food security of municipal areas that will allow municipal governing bodies within the powers in due time to undertake the measures directed on prevention of internal threats of food security. Results.The technique of an assessment of level of food security of territories is used for the analysis of production and consumption of the main products in certain municipal regions of the Saratov region. The problem of dependence on import of the main products for the majority of the studied areas is as a result noted.

Generation and Reproduction of Institutional Innovation

Introduction. Generation and development of institutional innovation is today one of the primatial tasks in economic development.

Theoretical analysis. The subject of scientific analysis is institutional innovation, understood as the rules of the functioning of formal and informal institutions, as well as in the relationship between the institutions. Institutional innovations are an important element of the concomitant formation of an innovative economy. The purpose of work – to reveal the content and features of the implementation of institutional innovations in different areas and countries.

Results. The features of the institutional environment, which determines the scope of the interaction of economic agents. Revealed sources and mechanism of institutional change. It determines the value of institutional innovations in the functioning of the economy. Need search tools allow you to control the economic development of the institutional innovation structures in order to achieve maximum economic results.

ЭКОНОМЕТРИЧЕСКИЕ ПОДХОДЫ К ОЦЕНИВАНИЮ КРЕДИТНОГО ПОВЕДЕНИЯ НАСЕЛЕНИЯ В РОССИИ

Introduction. Crediting of people has a firm position in last decade, but now there is a problem of the granted loans quality. So the study of the credit behavior, its mechanisms and structures is actual question. In article emphasis was placed on the methodological part of the problem, it was examined various statistical and econometric tools to study of the credit behavior.

Methods. Using binary choice model determinants of credit behavior were identified, and a typical portrait of average borrower was made. Using cluster analysis the volume of consumer loans by region was investigated. By using time series analysis for the volume of granted loans SARIMA-model and forecast was estimated.

Results. The most important determinants of credit behavior are age, sex, level of education, income, the loan experience in the past, the number of income sources. As a result of the cluster analysis Russian regions were divided into three homogenous groups that differ in terms of granted loans, the number of credit institutions, payable on the granted loans. Forecast of the volume of granted loans has shown that the volume of loans will continue to have a positive trend, despite the economic crisis.

Value Aspects of Modernization of the Economy in the Socio-economic Project of I. T. Pososhkov

Introduction. The studying of the I. T. Pososhkov theory began in the 30s of the XIX century. It was characterized by the specificity of the experience which had our country during this historical period and by the originality of approaches, which were used by the researchers of Pososhkov’s heritage.

Theoretical analysis. The theoretical position of I. T. Pososhkov was formed by his close and meaningful dialogue with the representatives of the higher clergy and the political and economic elite of Russia during the reign of Peter The Great. The people, who communicated with the thinker, formed a priority understanding of spiritual and moral values in the process of socio-economic reformation in Russia at the beginning of the XVIII century.

Results. The methodology of institutionalism and «real» political economy helps to reveal the role of the value aspects of the modernization of the economy in the socio-economic project of I. T. Pososhkov.

Food Security in the New Risks: Development of Methods of Strategic Planning

Introduction. In modern conditions the functioning of the national food market especially important to improve methods of strategic planning aimed at sustainable development of agri-food complex.

Methods. Among the economic methods of strategic planning the most in demand balance, regulatory and program-target method. The article suggests the direction of development of each of these methods. According to the program-target method – strengthening the integrated approach and the social orientation of the formation of the parameters of the State program of agricultural development and regulation of agricultural products, raw materials and food. On balance method – the use of the modified model of interbranch balance agricultural complex, which allows to coordinate the parameters of incomes of the population in the context of social and family groups, the personal consumption of basic foodstuffs with the volume of production of agricultural products and food imports.

Empirical Analysis. The basic trends in the sphere of food consumption, a comprehensive analysis is based on two sources of information: a study of the main parameters of food consumption using statistical data of Rosstat; summary of the results of a sociological survey that was conducted in IAgP RAS in Saratov region.

Results. The result of a comprehensive study of the scope of food consumption is a study ways to improve methods of strategic planning of development of agribusiness in the global socio-economic instability.

Foreign Practice of Socio Responsible Investment

Introduction. In the conditions of crisis and reconsideration of the main paradigms of development, social and responsible investment becomes one of the tools capable to provide «healthy» development of world economy. In the West the socially responsible investments (SRI) are considered as the mechanism of disclosure of innovative capacity of civil society. Research was based on methodology of the system analysis. The method of analogies, the comparative, statistical and expert analysis was used.

Theoretical part. The analysis of the Russian and western literature showed existence of different approaches to definition social, the social and responsible investments (SRI). The directions of modern social and responsible investments are extensive and various and include protection of the human rights, maintenance of justice and justice, legality, strengthening of responsibility (ecological, economic, international). Types, classification of SRI funds are allocated. The SRI main methods are activity of shareholders, screening of an investment portfolio, public investment. Development and distribution of social investment is connected with understanding of that corporations have serious impact on quality of life and on the future. Growth of number of socially conscious investors well influences business practice of the companies and stimulates positive changes in society.

Analytical part. The analysis of statistical data shows the big growth of the market of socially responsible investment, by estimates of the European forum of a sustainable development (European Sustainable Investment Forums, EURO SIF) for 2014 SRI volume sharply increased. More exact information on tendencies of the SRI market is given by the analysis of participants of an initiative the Principles of responsible investment of the UN (Principles for Responsible Investment Initiative – UN PRI). Growth of the market of socially responsible investment indirectly characterizes also increase in demand from participants of the market for non-financial information. The number of institutional investors – users services of the commercial information services using non-financial information grows. Conclusion. Indicators, directly or indirectly characterize growth of socially responsible investment in the developed countries of the world. As for socially responsible investment of financial sector in Russia, it only starts being formed. In the West social investments are considered as the mechanism of disclosure of innovative capacity of civil society. In our country development of consciousness of bulk of citizens, their welfare and activity in the financial market didn’t reach yet such level when they would seek to make the investment decisions the world better.

Peculiarities of the Present Stage of Realizing the Strategy of Import Substitution in the Agro-food Complex

Introduction. Strategic management of competitiveness is especially actual in the conditions of globalization, uncertainty of environment, changing the conjuncture of the world food market. The paper explores the conditions and factors of the present stage of import substitution in the agro-food complex.

Theoretical analysis. The paper shows the results and areas of studying the strategy of import substitution in the agro-food complex, the mechanisms of its support, and substantiates the short-term and long-term priorities. 

Results. Scientifically grounded are the prospects of realizing the strategy of competitive import substitution with the usage of methods of inter- branch management of the agro-industrial complex. The calculations of the full import capacity of production have been made. The monitoring of competitiveness of the agro-industrial complex and the data of expert survey have revealed the preferences and priorities of producers in the conditions of reciprocal Russian sanctions.

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